|2018/6/19 15:54||Green Car Congress||
UPS to invest $130M in > 700 natural gas vehicles and infrastructure; > $1B invested in alt fuels since 2008
UPS plans to build an additional five compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations and add more than 700 new CNG vehicles including 400 semi-tractors and 330 terminal trucks. This $130-million dollar investment in CNG capacity for 2018 builds on previous UPS investments of $100 million dollars in 2016 and $90 million dollars in 2017.
UPS will have invested more than $1 billion in alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling stations from 2008 through 2018.
We strongly believe further investment in our natural gas fleet is a key element to help us achieve our long-term goals for reducing our CO2 emissions. We demonstrated the effectiveness of natural gas vehicles and fuel in 2017 by using 77 million total gallon equivalents in our ground fleet. UPS is a catalyst for wide scale adoption of natural gas vehicles.Carlton Rose, president, global fleet maintenance and engineering for UPS
Building CNG and LNG capacity is an important enabler for increasing UPS’ use of renewable natural gas (RNG). RNG yields up to a 90% reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions when compared to conventional diesel. Last year, UPS used 15 million gallon equivalents of RNG. The company is the largest consumer of RNG in the transportation sector.
The five new CNG stations will be in Goodyear, Ariz.; Plainfield, Ind.; Edgerton, Kan.; Fort Worth, Texas; and Arlington, Texas. Four hundred semi-tractors will be supplied by Freightliner and Kenworth and 330 terminal trucks by TICO.
UPS will deploy the new CNG vehicles on routes to utilize the new CNG stations as well as adding to existing natural gas fleets in other UPS locations including Atlanta, Ga.; and Salt Lake City, Utah.
UPS currently operates more than 50 natural gas fueling stations strategically located across the US, and, outside the U.S. in Vancouver, Canada, and Tamworth, United Kingdom.
The initiative will help UPS reach its 2020 goal of one in four new vehicles purchased being an alternative fuel or advanced technology vehicle. The company has also set a goal of replacing 40% of all ground fuel with sources other than conventional gasoline and diesel. These goals support UPS commitment to reduce its GHG emissions from global ground operations 12 percent by 2025.
Using its Rolling Laboratory approach, UPS deploys approximately 9,100 low-emission vehicles to determine which technology works best in each route configuration. This includes all-electric, hybrid electric, hydraulic hybrid, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and propane.
|2018/6/19 13:00||Green Car Congress||
Bloomberg NEF forecasts falling battery prices enabling surge in wind and solar to 50% of global generation by 2050
Wind and solar power generation will surge to almost 50% of world generation by 2050 (“50 by 50”), supported by precipitous reductions in cost, and the advent of cheaper and cheaper batteries that will enable electricity to be stored and discharged to meet shifts in demand and supply, according to the new annual Bloomberg NEF New Energy Outlook (NEO) 2018.
This year’s outlook is the first to highlight the significant impact that falling battery costs will have on the electricity mix over the coming decades. BNEF predicts that lithium-ion battery prices, already down by nearly 80% per megawatt-hour since 2010, will continue to tumble as electric vehicle manufacturing builds up through the 2020s.
We see $548 billion being invested in battery capacity by 2050, two thirds of that at the grid level and one third installed behind-the-meter by households and businesses.
The arrival of cheap battery storage will mean that it becomes increasingly possible to finesse the delivery of electricity from wind and solar, so that these technologies can help meet demand even when the wind isn’t blowing and the sun isn’t shining. The result will be renewables eating up more and more of the existing market for coal, gas and nuclear.
—Seb Henbest, head of Europe, Middle East and Africa for BNEF and lead author of NEO 2018
NEO 2018 sees $11.5 trillion being invested globally in new power generation capacity between 2018 and 2050, with $8.4 trillion of that going to wind and solar and a further $1.5 trillion to other zero-carbon technologies such as hydro and nuclear.
This investment will produce a 17-fold increase in solar photovoltaic capacity worldwide, and a sixfold increase in wind power capacity. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from new PV plants is forecast to fall a further 71% by 2050, while that for onshore wind drops by a further 58%. These two technologies have already seen LCOE reductions of 77% and 41% respectively between 2009 and 2018.
Coal emerges as the biggest loser in the long run. Beaten on cost by wind and PV for bulk electricity generation, and batteries and gas for flexibility, the future electricity system will reorganize around cheap renewables—coal gets squeezed out.
—Elena Giannakopoulou, head of energy economics at BNEF
The latest BP Annual Energy Outlook found that in 2017, renewables grew strongly in 2017, with wind and solar leading the way. However, coal consumption was also up, growing for the first time since 2013. Among the related datapoints:
Coal consumption growth in 2017 was driven largely by India (18 mtoe), with China consumption also up slightly (4 Mtoe) following three successive annual declines during 2014-2016. OECD demand fell for the fourth year in a row (-4 mtoe).
Coal’s share in primary energy in 2017 fell to 27.6%, the lowest since 2004.
World coal production grew by 105 mtoe or 3.2%, the fastest rate of growth since 2011. Production rose by 56 mtoe in China and 23 mtoe in the US.
BNEF forecasts the role of gas in the generation mix will evolve, with gas-fired power stations increasingly built and used to provide back-up for renewables rather than to produce base-load, or round-the-clock, electricity.
BNEF sees $1.3 trillion being invested in new capacity to 2050, nearly half of it in gas peaker plants rather than combined-cycle turbines. Gas-fired generation is seen rising 15% between 2017 and 2050, although its share of global electricity declines from 21% to 15%.
Fuel burn trends globally are forecast to be dire in the long run for the coal industry, but moderately encouraging for the gas extraction sector. NEO 2018 sees coal burn in power stations falling 56% between 2017 and 2050, while that for gas rises 14%.
The bearish outlook for coal means that NEO 2018 offers a more upbeat projection for carbon emissions than the equivalent report a year ago. BNEF now sees global electricity sector emissions rising 2% from 2017 to a peak in 2027, and then falling 38% to 2050.
However, BNEF notes, this would still mean electricity failing to fulfill its part of the effort to keep global CO₂ levels below 450 parts per million.
Even if we decommissioned all the world’s coal plants by 2035, the power sector would still be tracking above a climate-safe trajectory, burning too much unabated gas. Getting to two degrees requires a zero-carbon solution to the seasonal extremes, one that doesn’t involve unabated gas.
—Matthias Kimmel, energy economics analyst at BNEF
BNEF’s New Energy Outlook is underpinned by the evolving economics of different power technologies, and on projections for electricity demand fundamentals such as population and GDP. It assumes that existing energy policy settings around the world remain in place until their scheduled expiry, and that there are no additional government measures.
Among the other highlights of NEO 2018 are high penetration rates for renewables in many markets (87% of total electricity supply in Europe by 2050, and 55% for the US, 62% for China and 75% for India). It also highlights a shift to more decentralization in some countries such as Australia, where by mid-century consumer PV and batteries account for 43% of all capacity.
NEO 2018 also analyzes the impact of the electrification of transport on electricity consumption. It estimates that electric cars and buses will be using 3,461 TWh of electricity globally in 2050, equivalent to 9% of total demand. About half of the necessary charging is forecast to be done on a dynamic basis, taking advantage of times when electricity prices are low because of high renewables output.
This analysis draws on BNEF’s latest Electric Vehicle Outlook, published on May 21, which predicted that EVs would account for 28% of global new car sales by 2030, and 55% by 2040. Electric buses are expected to dominate their market even more decisively, reaching 84% global share by 2030.
|2018/6/19 10:30||Green Car Congress||
Mercedes-Benz EQC EV soaking up summer heat of up to 50˚C in trials in Spain
Mercedes-Benz will run the Mercedes-Benz EQC electric vehicle through hot weather trials in Spain. Following successful winter trials, the EQC is required to endure an extensive test program in the summer heat with temperatures of up to 50° C (122 ˚F).
Particular attention is being given to aspects which are very demanding for electric cars—air conditioning and charging, as well as cooling the battery, drive system and control units in extreme heat. Criteria such as driving dynamics and ride comfort are also subjected to further, stringent tests.
With the finishing straight in sight, we are now able to absolve another extremely demanding test program with our pre-series vehicles. But after successfully completed endurance tests in winter at minus 35 degrees C, we are confident that the heat trials will confirm that we are well on schedule for the start of series production.
—Michael Kelz, Chief Engineer for the EQC
While the battery of an electric car “merely” loses power in the cold, exposure to great heat carries the risk of battery damage. Optimum management of these physical characteristics is the aim of the extreme tests in Spain. One main focus is on the battery’s cooling circuit: how does it cope with high power requirements? How does an almost fully charged battery respond to further charging? What influence does the heat have on operating range? Battery draining tests, i.e. test drives in which the battery is completely drained of power, are also part of the test program.
Another aspect is air conditioning of the interior—both during a journey and beforehand, as pre-climatization is an important comfort factor. This is when questions such as “Is the indicated time sufficient for pre-climatization?” and “Is the calculated range correct when the temperature is taken into consideration?” are answered. Furthermore, the noise characteristics of individual components such as the air conditioning compressor in the heat are specifically examined.
Fine dust is also a particular challenge during the trials in Spain, as the test technicians want to know where this dust might be deposited in the components, and whether the sealing concept works in practice.
Systematic complete-vehicle validation is among the extensive measures in the development process of every Mercedes-Benz model series. This serves to verify and to maintain the high quality standards.
Before a new product goes into production, the complete vehicle must reach a maturity level set by Mercedes-Benz. This takes place in several stages: step one is digital preliminary design and simulation. It is followed by validation—either of individual components on dynamometers or in test vehicles. This tests and validates, for example, the durability of a powertrain connection or of individual axle parts.
Digital testing covers all key areas of vehicle development: from the simulation and verification of buildability to crash, aerodynamic, ride & handling), NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) and weight tests plus fuel consumption and operating range.
Despite all the advantages of digital testing in terms of speed, data availability and efficiency, no vehicle goes into series production without extensive real-world testing. The focus is on the long-term durability of components such as major assemblies on the dynamometer, and functional testing of the complete vehicle under different climatic conditions on the roads. In the case of the EQC, of course, special attention is paid to the electric powertrain and the battery.
A special role is also played by the acoustics of an electric car. Unlike in a combustion-engined car, there is hardly a sound from the powertrain. This makes sounds such as the rolling of the tires or wind noise more prominent.
Before being released for production, the vehicle must be tested and validated by numerous individuals from many different development departments. A total of several hundred experts are involved in testing. From the specialist departments, which approve their components and modules, through to testing/endurance testing of the complete vehicle.
In the case of the EQC, the overall development time is around four years. Before coming to market in many countries around the world, the EQC will have undergone extensive testing in Germany, Finland, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Dubai, South Africa, the USA and China.
|2018/6/19 9:45||Green Car Congress||
Zap&Go bringing C-Ion technology to Williams Advanced Engineering-led consortium as part of £246M Faraday Battery Challenge
Zap&Go Ltd has been selected to contribute its unique Carbon-Ion (C-Ion) technology to a consortium led by Williams Advanced Engineering to develop next-generation battery systems for electric vehicles. The project is part of the UK Government’s Faraday Battery Challenge, a £246-million (US$326-million) commitment to battery development for the electric vehicle market.
Williams Advanced Engineering is the technology and engineering services business of the Williams Group, which also includes Williams Martini Racing, one of the most successful teams in Formula 1 history and sole battery supplier to all Formula E racing cars. The consortium seeks to deliver faster-charging, higher-power, higher-energy batteries that improve upon today’s technology.
Zap&Go’s C-Ion cell is intended to combine the power density of supercapacitors and the energy density of rechargeable batteries. The C-Ion cells work in a very similar way to electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs)—also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors—but use different carbon and electrolyte materials that are not only safer and easier to recycle at the end of life, but also enable the devices to operate at higher voltages resulting in higher energy densities.
Zap&Go says that its C-Ion technology offers sub-five-minute charging with slow discharge; increased safety; greater charge/discharge cycles versus Li-ion; and is easier to recycle than alternatives.
Zap&Go says that its C-Ion cell can provide specific power characteristics between one and two orders of magnitude higher than a Li-ion cell. It is designed to be classified as non-flammable and non-hazardous for transport, allowing the product to be shipped easily and to comply with both current and future regulations.
Zap&Go is focusing its current research efforts in developing gel and all-solid state C-Ion cells. C-Ion have all of the advantages of EDLCs, but are designed to operate at higher voltages through the use of their technologically advanced electrolytes. These electrolytes can operate in the 4.0V to 6.0V range, which has the potential to improve the energy density of the C-Ion cells.
Specifically, Zap&Go is creating polymer-inorganic composite electrolytes in the form of membranes. Such materials are tailored to contain interconnected nano-sized channels formed by the polymer network for easy ion migration. The polymer network weakly binds the ions to enable fast ion transport. The weak binding and fast ion transport is achieved by creating a network of vacant binding sites in the polymer.
The other members of the consortium are Imperial College London and automotive software specialists PowerOasis and Codeplay.
It’s an important validation of our technology to be invited to work with the Williams team. We want to demonstrate the viability of a hybrid battery management system that goes beyond what’s currently available to EV manufacturers. The time is right to demonstrate that our Carbon-Ion technology can deliver safe, fast charging.
—Stephen Voller, CEO and founder of Zap&Go
Zap&Go Ltd is a technology company based at the Harwell Research Campus, Oxford with a US office in Charlotte, NC.
|2018/6/19 9:00||Green Car Congress||
Nissan to use SHF 980 MPa high-formability steel in more new vehicles
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. will build more models using a new type of super high formability (SHF) steel that combines high tensile strength with a previously unachievable degree of formability, resulting in lighter vehicles that can help lower emissions while protecting occupants. (Earlier post.)
Nissan is the world’s first carmaker to use the SHF steel, with a tensile strength of 980 megapascals (MPa), which was jointly developed by Nissan and Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.
The steel’s combination of stamping formability and strength makes it possible to form parts with complex shapes that are thinner and lighter than those made of conventional high tensile strength steel, while maintaining the ability to absorb energy in a collision.
The INFINITI QX50 premium midsize SUV, which went on sale in the US in March, is the first vehicle with front and rear side members made from 980-megapascal ultrahigh tensile strength steel, along with other body frame parts.
UNIPRES Corporation is producing the difficult-to-form car body structural parts using the SHF 980 MPa steel for the QX50. The SHF 980 MPa steel is applied to front side members, rear side members, and other under-body structural parts that are difficult to form.
Although the SHF 980MPa steel has elongation property close to that of conventional 590MPa steel, its application to the under-body structural parts having complex shapes was a challenge in terms of formation, UNIPRES said.
UNIPRES solved this problem by developing a unique press forming technology that enabled application for those parts that could not be formed with conventional 980MPa steel.
Nissan plans to expand the use of the material, which enhances fuel efficiency as well as driving performance by lowering vehicle weight, to other models.
Nissan launched a sustainability plan this month that calls for lowering CO2 emissions from its new vehicles by 40% by fiscal year 2022, compared with fiscal year 2000.
The company is aggressively developing technologies to expand the use of ultrahigh tensile strength steel, aiming for it to make up 25% of the company’s vehicle parts by weight. The material makes up 27% of the new QX50.
The 980-megapascal steel developed with Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal can be cold-pressed, making it suitable for mass production. This will help contain increases in vehicle cost.
4th EU Electromobility Stakeholder Forum
Projects FREVUE, I-CVUE and ZeEUS, together with the European Commission, are glad to invite you to the 4th edition of the EU Electromobility Stakeholder Forum. This key e-mobility event will offer 2 days of learning, discussions and networking. A range of electrifying topics will be covered from urban design opportunities, multimodal and interoperable charging infrastructure, operational impact of electric vehicles right through to results achieved so far.
Electric Car Batteries Just Hit A Key Price Point
Electric vehicle demand in the past five years has soared in the US. The same is true worldwide. By the end of 2014, more than 700,000 total plug-in vehicles had been sold worldwide (plug-in hybrids and pure battery electrics), up from about 400,000 at the end of 2013. As of 2015, dozens of models of electric cars and vans are available for purchase, mostly in Europe, the United States, Japan, and China.
A major reason for the rapid jump in EV sales is the rapid drop in the cost of their key component -– batteries. The energy stored in a battery is measured by kilowatt-hour (kWh). The more kWh stored, the further the car can go on one charge, so a key metric for battery economics is the cost per kWh. The lower the cost, the cheaper it is to build an electric car with a significant range.
New steering system proposed to increase electric-car efficiency
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany and automotive supplier Schaeffler are working to develop a new type of steering system specifically for electric cars that could improve their efficiency.
As with most internal-combustion cars, electric cars use a power assist to decrease steering effort. This draws electricity from a car’s battery pack, affecting range, the two partners note. KIT and Schaeffler propose a system that does away with the standard apparatus of a steering column linked to the wheels by tie rods. Instead, the prototype system uses individual electric motors for each of the front wheels to steer.
Energy Ministry touts Thailand as electric vehicle hub
The Energy Ministry plans to give its full support to promoting Thailand as an electric vehicle (EV) production hub. Energy Minister Narongchai Akrasanee said his ministry would amend regulations and electricity transmission to allow access to electricity chargers at petrol stations. The policy is expected to help increase the sales of EVs at home, which would attract car makers to choose Thailandas a production base, he said.
Electric cars could cut oil imports 40% by 2030, says study
Electric cars could cut the UK’s oil imports by 40% and reduce drivers’ fuel bills by £13bn if deployed on a large scale, according to a new study.
An electric vehicle surge would deliver an average £1,000 of fuel savings a year per driver, and spark a 47% drop in carbon emissions by 2030, said the Cambridge Econometrics study.
The paper, commissioned by the European Climate Foundation, said that air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and particulates would be all but eliminated by mid-century, with knock-on health benefits from reduced respiratory diseases valued at over £1bn.