|2019/6/18 11:00||Green Car Congress||
Emissions Analytics: mass adoption of hybrids, rather than low-volume BEVs most effective for cutting CO2 now, meeting 2030 targets; best use of limited resource
Emissions Analytics, a leading independent specialist for the scientific measurement of real-world emissions, suggests that mass adoption of hybrid vehicles, rather than low-volume take-up of full BEVs, is the most effective solution to cutting CO2 now and also in meeting 2030 emission targets. Of all electrification strategies, full BEVs currently offer the least effective CO2 reduction per kWh of battery size, according to the analysis by the firm: 21 times worse than mild hybrids and 14 times worse than full hybrids. With automotive battery capacity currently scarce, expensive and suffering supply problems, the deployment of this limited resource is critical to maximizing CO2 reduction, Emissions Analytics says. With tardy consumer adoption of BEVs and slow infrastructure roll-out compounded by concerns around an economical supply of batteries, it is essential to find the fastest, most efficient way to reduce CO2 now. One of our biggest challenges is fleet turnover, with vehicles staying on the road typically for up to 12 years. It means that refreshing the entire fleet is a very slow process. Given reservations about current BEVs, we require an alternative that will have a more immediate impact. Due to CO2’s long life in the atmosphere, a small change now is far better than a large change in the future. We need to optimize the use of the industry’s available battery capacity to facilitate a critical early reduction.—Nick Molden, CEO of Emissions Analytics Through extensive real-world testing of electrified vehicles, Emissions Analytics has found that hybrids, whether in gasoline or diesel form, offer the highest CO2 reduction per kWh across all electrified powertrains. Using mild, full and plug-in hybrid real-world emissions test data from both European and US vehicles, Emissions Analytics compared hybrids with their internal combustion engine equivalents. Using its standardized on-road cycle, the company determined the average CO2 reduction from hybridization was 23% for the EU and 34% for the US, with an average of 30% across all pairings. Emissions Analytics then calculated the distance-specific CO2 reduction per unit of battery size (capacity), in g/km/kWh, for mild, full, plug-in hybrids and BEVs. The results indicated that mild hybrids are the most efficient way to reduce CO2, given limited global battery capacity. With a reduction of 73.9g/km/kWh, the technology was a clear favorite, with full hybrids coming in second at 50.5g/km/kWh. Due to their disproportionately large batteries, BEVs were the worst of the available options, with a mere 3.5g/km/kWh reduction. The size of BEV batteries tends to be large to accommodate infrequent, extreme use cases—such as high-mileage trips, not often undertaken by average drivers—and do not make the best uses of limited supply. The calculations did not take into account the upstream CO2 in fuel extraction, refining and transportation, or the production and distribution of electricity. Some studies suggest the upstream CO2 of electricity is greater than for gasoline, but the relative efficiency calculations here implicitly assume they are equal. Electrification has proved to be a promising path to reducing tailpipe emissions. The most extreme form of the technology—fully-electric vehicles—is often hailed as the solution. Paradoxically, full BEVs appear to be a highly inefficient way to achieve an urgent and meaningful CO2 reduction. With supply chain issues and consumer acceptance challenges including range and price, there is cause to investigate alternative use of our limited battery capacity.—Nick Molden Improving the air quality in cities is another popular reason for those championing BEVs. It is, however, a false assertion that they are needed to fulfil this purpose. Existing technology is more than capable of bringing European cities within compliance, the primary polluters being vehicles with older internal combustion engine technology. Molden outlined two potential paths that are immediately available. One is a switch from gasoline to diesel, reducing CO2 by 11%, coupled with a mild hybrid system, providing a further 6% reduction. A final swap to full hybrids would deliver an addition 16% reduction for a 34% total. Alternatively, switching directly from gasoline to gasoline mild hybrids provides an 11% reduction, with a further 23% from the move to full hybrid. The EU’s post-2021 CO2 reduction target for passenger cars is 37.5% by 2030. Emissions Analytics tests clearly shows that, even with current technology, widespread hybridization would achieve more than three-quarters of that target. Given a decade of further advances and innovations, it is possible that the goal could be met without the need for BEVs at all, Emissions Analytics says. Beyond the 37.5% reduction target, more extensive electrification would be required to bring whole fleet emissions down. The ideal solution is an immediate transition to petrol and diesel hybrids, with a further decade spent refining the technology, infrastructure and battery supply chain to allow the adoption of BEVs. By 2030, the EU and the US would have had another decade to develop expanded, cleaner electricity generation capacity, improving the lifecycle emissions of BEVs. Alternatively, by 2030 the availability and price of renewable energy may well fall to a level at which hydrogen fuel cells could be economically viable. These avoid the environmental and geopolitical issues caused by largescale battery production and would likely offer even lower lifecycle emissions. The overall message is this though: it is paramount that governments and industry take into consideration real-world data when promoting technologies to efficiently reduce CO2.—Nick Molden Emissions Analytics seeks to bring transparency to a confused market sector. It publishes the EQUA Index of real-world driving emissions and works with clients around the world to establish accurate emissions measurement and data requirements.
|2019/6/18 10:30||Green Car Congress||
Third-generation Renault ZOE increase ranges >20% to 390 km with better performance
Renault has launched the third-generation of its ZOE electric vehicle, featuring a 52 kWh battery pack that will deliver up to 390 kilometers (242 miles) in the WLTP—an increase of more than 20% from the prior generation. The growth in energy capacity uses the same sized-battery, maintaining the vehicle’s comfortable habitability. In addition to 22 kW AC charging, new ZOE now support up to 50 kW DC fast charging. Further, with its more powerful 100 kW motor (R135), new ZOE offers even more driving pleasure. The R135 motor produces a torque of 245 N·m that allows it to go from 80 to 120 km/h in 7.1 seconds, 2.2 seconds better than the older R110 motor. It now achieves 0 to 100 km/h in less than 10 seconds. In addition, the New ZOE’s top speed has increased to 140 km/h (87 mph). New ZOE is equipped with many innovative features and connected Renault EASY CONNECT services. Driving aids, a 10-inch display, the Renault EASY LINK multimedia system, and a new urban mode are all designed to make everyday driving easier and more enjoyable. Called “B mode”, this new urban mode provides intensified decelerations, allowing for the reduced use of the brake pedal. The 10-inch display, available from the entry-level trim, contains the main driving aids and all settings specific to electric driving, starting with the eco-meter that encourages eco-friendly driving habits. On versions equipped with navigation, it also displays GPS indications. The driver can customize the lighting and the layout of the different information on-screen. The display’s horizon and varying perspective-effects create a sense of depth and help the driver to focus. A 9.3-inch touch-screen multimedia display that extends across the center console gives access to all the navigation and entertainment services. It controls the main settings of the vehicle, from the various driving aids to the customization of the colors on the 10-inch driver’s dashboard screen. The Renault EASY LINK system is enhanced with specific electric vehicle functions, such as the availability of charging stations in real-time. It also allows users to connect their smartphone and show applications via Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. The raised center console hosts a new electronic gear lever. It enables the easy transition, with a simple push, between driving modes, notably to enjoy the new mode designed for urban driving.
|2019/6/18 10:00||Green Car Congress||
Mercedes-Benz Cars and Telefónica Deutschland establish the world’s first 5G network for automobile production
Together with telecommunications company Telefónica Deutschland and network supplier Ericsson, Mercedes-Benz Cars is putting in place the world’s first 5G mobile network for automobile production in its “Factory 56” in Sindelfingen. The 5G network is being installed by telecommunications company Telefónica Deutschland in collaboration with network supplier Ericsson. Once installation and commissioning are completed, the network will be operated by Mercedes-Benz Cars. As part of an innovation project that extends over an area of more than 20,000 m2, the 5G mobile communications standard is being implemented for the first time into the running production. The experience gained there will be actively incorporated into plans for future implementation in other plants. The use of state-of-the-art 5G network technology allows Mercedes-Benz Cars, among other things, to optimize existing production processes in its plant with the help of new features. These include, for example, data linking or product tracking on the assembly line. With a separate own network, all processes can be optimized and made more robust, and if necessary adapted at short notice to prevailing market requirements. Furthermore, the mobile communications standard links production systems and machines together in an intelligent manner, thereby supporting the efficiency and precision of the production process. A further benefit of using a local 5G network is that sensitive production data do not have to be made available to third parties, the company said. With the 5G network, the enormous quantities of data required for various test scenarios involving the automobile of the future can be processed very quickly (via “data shower”). The 5G mobile communications standard allows fast data transmission rates in the gigabit range, with extremely low latency and a high level of reliability. In order to reach the full capability of 5G, short distances are essential. This is only possible via a local infrastructure, as is being implemented for the first time here in the “Factory 56”. The “Factory 56” has been equipped by the cooperation partners with several 5G small-cell indoor antennas and a central 5G hub. Mercedes-Benz Cars Operations (MO) is responsible for passenger car production in more than 30 locations worldwide. The production network is structured around the product architectures front-wheel drive (compact cars) and rear-wheel drive (e.g. S-Class, E-Class and C-Class), as well as the SUV and sports car architectures. There is also a production network for the powertrain (engines, transmissions, axles, components). At the centre of each architecture production network is a lead plant that serves as a center of competence for new product start-ups, technology and quality assurance. Mercedes-Benz Cars is establishing electro-hubs around the globe for the production of electric cars and batteries.
|2019/6/18 9:30||Green Car Congress||
Charlotte Douglas International Airport to buy 5 Proterra electric buses; 9th airport
Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) has agreed to purchase five 35-foot Proterra Catalyst E2 electric buses and five 125 kW Proterra plug-in charging systems. CLT, which serves approximately 46 million passengers each year, becomes the ninth airport to purchase Proterra electric buses for ground transportation and joins a growing list of major airports across the US that are electrifying their fleets. Proterra battery-electric buses will contribute to CLT’s sustainability goals. Proterra Catalyst vehicles have no tailpipe emissions and decrease dependency on fossil fuels. Tailpipe emissions are reduced by 230,000 pounds of CO2 annually each time a conventionally-fueled diesel vehicle is replaced by a Proterra electric bus. Proterra charging systems utilize the universal J1772-CCS Type 1 charging standard, enabling buses, utility vehicles and cars to share the same chargers. By planning for scale now, CLT can utilize the charging infrastructure for a range of battery-electric powered service vehicles in the future. CLT is the first airport to leverage the Georgia State Contract to purchase Proterra electric buses. The state of Georgia underwent a testing and review process and selected Proterra as a statewide vendor for electric buses, and allows other states to leverage the state contract to simplify the process of purchasing electric buses. CLT’s Proterra buses will be manufactured locally in Greenville, SC. Airports across the country are transitioning their ground transportation vehicle fleets to zero-emission buses, and CLT joins a growing list of airports across the nation that are leading this trend, including San Francisco International Airport (SFO); John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK); Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR); LaGuardia Airport (LGA); Sacramento International Airport (SMF); Silicon Valley’s Norman Y. Mineta San José International Airport (SJC); Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU); and Honolulu International Airport (HNL). Airports are an ideal use case for electric vehicle technology because of their predictable circulator routes and potential for shared charging infrastructure with other service vehicles in the fleet.—Proterra CEO Ryan Popple
|2019/6/18 9:00||Green Car Congress||
NHTSA estimates decrease of ~1% in traffic fatalities in 2018; pedestrian and cyclist fatalities up
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) statistical projection of traffic fatalities for 2018 shows that an estimated 36,750 people died in motor vehicle traffic crashes. This represents a slight decrease of about 1.0% as compared to the 37,133 fatalities that were reported to have occurred in 2017. Preliminary data reported by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) shows that vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in 2018 increased by about 12.2 billion miles, or about a 0.4% increase. The fatality rate for 2018 was 1.14 fatalities per 100 million VMT, down from 1.16 fatalities per 100 million VMT in 2017. The fourth quarter of 2018 represents the seventh consecutive quarter with year-to-year decreases in fatalities and the fatality rate. NHTSA’s Argonne National Laboratoryaysis suggests slight decreases in driver, passenger, and motorcyclist deaths for the US in 2018 as compared to 2017. However, fatalities in crashes involving at least one large truck, pedestrian fatalities, and pedalcyclist fatalities are projected to increase by 3, 4, and 10%, respectively. Older drivers (65+) involved in fatal crashes also saw a slight increase. The fatality counts for 2017 and 2018 and the ensuing percentage change from 2017 to 2018 will be further revised as the final file for 2017 and the annual reporting file for 2018 are available later this year. These estimates may be further refined when the projections for the first quarter of 2019 are released in late spring of 2019.