|2018/6/20 16:04||Green Car Congress||
Audi and Hyundai to partner on fuel cell technology
Audi AG and Hyundai Motor Group will partner on the development of fuel cell technology. The two companies plan to cross-license patents and grant access to non-competitive components.
The agreement is currently subject to approval from the applicable regulatory authorities. Through their collaboration, both partners aim to bring the fuel cell to volume production maturity more quickly and more efficiently. Audi and Hyundai are also exploring more far-reaching collaboration on the development of this sustainable technology.
The fuel cell is the most systematic form of electric driving and thus a potent asset in our technology portfolio for the emission-free premium mobility of the future. On our FCEV roadmap, we are joining forces with strong partners such as Hyundai. For the breakthrough of this sustainable technology, cooperation is the smart way to leading innovations with attractive cost structures.
—Peter Mertens, Board Member for Technical Development at Audi
We are confident that our partnership with Audi will successfully demonstrate the vision and benefits of FCEVs to the global society. This agreement is another example of Hyundai’s strong commitment to creating a more sustainable future whilst enhancing consumers’ lives with hydrogen-powered vehicles, the fastest way to a truly zero-emission world.
—Euisun Chung, Vice Chairman at Hyundai Motor Company
Long ranges and short refueling times make hydrogen an attractive future source of energy for electric mobility. This is particularly true for larger automobiles, where the weight advantages of the fuel cell vehicle inherent to its design are particularly pronounced, Audi said.
Besides further advances in fuel cell technology, key aspects for its future market success include the regenerative production of hydrogen and the establishment of a sufficient infrastructure.
Within the Volkswagen Group, AUDI AG has taken on the development responsibility for the fuel cell technology and is currently working on its sixth generation. The Group’s Fuel Cell Competence Center is located at the Neckarsulm site.
Audi plans to introduce its first fuel cell model as a small series production at the beginning of the next decade. As a sporty SUV, the model will combine the premium comfort of the full-size segment with long-range capability. The cross-license agreement with Hyundai is already focused on the next development stage intended for a broader market offer.
Audi has been working on fuel cell concepts for almost 20 years. The first test vehicle was the compact Audi A2H2 in 2004, followed by the Audi Q5 HFC in 2008. The 2014 Audi A7 Sportback h-tron quattro introduced the “h-tron” suffix for models with fuel cell technology. The “h” stands for the element hydrogen. The Audi h-tron quattro concept study presented in 2016 further demonstrated the brand’s technology competence in fuel cell drive systems.
|2018/6/20 11:15||Green Car Congress||
ZF introduces electrified AMT for hybrid functions for small and compact vehicles
ZF has introduced a new eAMT (electrified Automated Manual Transmission) technology for the hybridization of front-transverse vehicles. The eAMT integrates the company’s electric axle drive system (eVD) and an automated manual transmission (AMT) into one system.
The transmission actuator and the electric rear axle operate together with intelligent interaction. This results in the eAMT concept no longer experiencing tractive force interruption; the electric motor bridges the gap in accelerative force of the AMT.
In addition to the hybrid functions of electric drive and recuperation and boost, eAMT also features electric all-wheel drive. ZF software regulates the networking and coordination of the internal combustion engine, electric motor and automated transmission.
For the hybridization of price-sensitive small to compact vehicles with front-wheel drive, the greatest challenges are currently additional cost and development effort as well as limited installation space.
With eAMT, ZF has developed a fully-fledged plug-in hybrid drive for front-transverse vehicles. This increases flexibility for vehicle manufacturers. They can use existing platforms to implement conventional drives or plug-in hybrids.
The ZF concept integrates an automated manual transmission and an electric axle drive system on the rear axle into one unit. In some vehicle classes, automatic transmissions are out of the question for reasons of weight, space or cost. In this scenario, the automation of manual transmissions is a great way to significantly increase comfort and efficiency for drivers, as they don’t need to actuate the clutch or change gears.
—Norman Schmidt-Winkel, functional developer of electric drives at ZF
Due to the electric drive and intelligent drive management, eAMT’s shift comfort and performance are almost on par with more costly torque converter or dual clutch transmissions, ZF says.
As soon as the AMT disengages in order to engage a new gear, there is a tractive force interruption. This is normal for automated manual transmissions due to their design. With its Traction Torque Support function, the new eAMT almost completely compensates for this short break in accelerative force.
The electric drive on the rear axle precisely bridges this break with a perfectly timed insertion of torque. A ZF eAMT demonstration vehicle based on a current compact SUV platform underscores just how well this balance of force between the front combustion engine, the automated transmission and the rear electric drive works in real-world applications.
The driver is absolutely unaware of the complex system sequences and control processes running in the background. When accelerating, only the benefits of completely jerk-free, powerful acceleration can be felt. Previously, these benefits would only be available in much more expensive hybrid vehicles with more complex transmissions. We also utilized the eAMT system’s potential for other features that increase efficiency and driving safety.
The electric rear axle drive not only supports gear changes: It will also activate automatically and at lightning speed as soon as additional thrust is required such as when overtaking, or when all-wheel drive is needed on slippery road sections.
In addition, ZF has dimensioned the electric motor in the demonstration vehicle to have the capacity to move the SUV under electric power alone. It then travels in all-electric mode and with zero local emissions.
This eAMT operating mode is particularly suitable for urban driving, creep mode in traffic jams as well as general maneuvering and parking.
Conversely, eAMT also enables coasting—i.e., saving energy while gliding along with the combustion engine drive disengaged. This function benefits from the asynchronous machine (ASM) in the rear.
Unlike permanent-field synchronous machines (PSM), the former turns without resistance as long as the hybrid manager does not actuate it. The plug-in hybrid also has familiar features such as automatic engine stop and recuperation. With eAMT, manufacturers can freely select the functional scope of future plug-in hybrids and determine how powerful their electrical motors are to be.
|2018/6/20 10:40||Green Car Congress||
New advanced metals processing center opens at Brunel
The new Advanced Metal Processing Center (AMPC) has opened at Brunel University London. The new center provides a boost for manufacturers to work with Brunel on large-scale research and development activity, enabling innovations such as novel structures for lightweight car parts to make the leap from the lab to full-scale industrial trials.
The AMPC, which was officially opened at the Brunel Center for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST) on 13 June, is funded by £15 million (US$20 million) from the UK government, providing the equipment and infrastructure to attract industrial match funding through people and resources from partners such as Constellium and Jaguar Land Rover. This will help to develop the future generation of engineers, designers, scientists and materials specialists, and to accelerate automotive lightweighting through the deployment of world-leading, high-performance aluminium alloys and innovative technologies.
Touring the AMPC equipment at the opening.
The AMPC’s 1,500 square meters of working space, in a bespoke building on Brunel’s campus in Uxbridge, is the second phase of BCAST’s scale-up facility, following on from 2016’s launch of the Advanced Metal Casting Center (AMCC).
The industrial and pilot-scale metal processing equipment enables:
Processing and fabrication of extruded metals, such as novel bending processes, machining and advanced joining techniques;
Further casting processes, such as gravity die casting and sand casting, adding to those available in the AMCC; and
Supporting materials characterization, such as for testing strength and fatigue, and including 3D x-ray tomography.
A key feature of the AMPC and AMCC is that BCAST’s researchers and seconded engineers from its partners will work side by side.
Constellium also concurrently announced the expansion of its research and development capability at Brunel. After establishing a University Technology Center in 2016, Constellium is dedicating an R&D Center within the campus to transition technology from the laboratory to its production facilities around the world.
The automotive industry is advancing technology at an unprecedented pace, and the AMPC is a tremendous resource for automakers, allowing rapid prototyping with state-of-the art forming and joining techniques to help shape lightweight, high-strength components for the next generation of vehicles. Constellium is thrilled to be expanding its presence at Brunel University London and to be at the forefront of development for aluminium automotive structural components.
—Paul Warton, President of Constellium’s Automotive Structures and Industry business unit
Constellium has already delivered international projects stemming from work with BCAST, including one for Tesla: The Model 3 is supplied with the front and rear crash management systems from Constellium developed with ultra-high-strength alloys in Brunel.
Equipment offered at the AMPC includes:
Sand casting: Commercial foundry equipment forming a no-bake (air-set) sand casting line, for moulds up to 1 m × 1 m in size, comprising hopper, sand mixer, vibratory compaction, roll-over, 300 kg furnace for melting aluminium, heated ladle and de-coring oven.
Gravity die casting: A commercial 90° tilting gravity die casting machine, with 800 × 500 mm platens and four double die cooling channels for air and water, capable of casting components up to 20 kg in weight.
Free-form bending: A commercial 6-axis servohydraulic computer numerical control (CNC) free-form bending machine to allow continuously fed extruded profiles of up to 4 m in length to be bent into complex geometries.
Roll bending: A commercial 35-tonne roll bending machine, with three individually servomotor-driven rolls, computer control, automatic radius correction, and positioning resolution of 1/100 mm.
Electromagnetic pulse forming and welding: An innovative method of shaping and joining that uses the force generated by short, energetic electromagnetic pulses in combination with field shapers, mandrels and dies. It can be used for many applications including shaping hollow sections and joining dissimilar metals.
Heat treatment: A range of large heat treatment ovens for homogenization, solution and ageing treatments of billets, extruded profiles, fabricated components and cast components. The facilities include a water/polymer quench bath.
Machining: Machining facilities include a CNC machining center, CNC lathe, electro-discharge wire cutting, and other workshop equipment. The equipment is used for fabricating prototype components and machining test specimens.
Joining: A cold metal transfer (CMT) welding set with a universal robot, for welding at very low heat input to minimise distortion and for welding thin gauges. A flow drill screwdriving system, which forms holes, threads and inserts a screw in a single step: ideal for joining to hollow sections and where access is difficult.
Mechanical testing: A 100 kN servohydraulic fatigue test frame and a 100 kN electromechanical universal test frame, both with environment chambers for testing at up to 600°C. Strain measurement by contact extensometry and a dual-camera optical strain measurement system. Supported by hardness testing and inspection microscopes.
X-ray CT scanning: Two x-ray computed tomography systems for 3D inspection: a 450 kV system for inspection of large-sized components, capable of imaging defects of 100 μm; and a 150 kV system with micron-scale resolution in small samples.
Optical 3D scanning: Precise measurement of components by stereo-camera optical 3D scanning with triple-scan functionality, additional photogrammetry, touch probes for out-of-sight measurement, and inspection turntable.
Funding for the AMPC has been provided through a £15-million award from the Higher Educational Funding Council for England (HEFCE) UKRPIF programme (now managed by Research England) and multi-million pounds of cash and in-kind support for R&D from the private sector over ten years.
The AMPC’s research partners include Constellium, Jaguar Land Rover, Grainger & Worrall, Sarginsons Industries, Aeromet International, Innoval Technology and Norton Aluminium.
Examples of Innovate UK projects that have been using the AMCC and will use the AMPC from its outset:
Carbon Aluminium Automotive Hybrid Structures (CAAHS); Partners: Gordon Murray Design Limited (lead), Innoval Technology Limited, Constellium UK Limited. Gordon Murray Design’s iStream automotive manufacturing technology allows significant reductions in setup, production costs, vehicle mass, and lifecycle CO2 emissions, while offering cost-effective design flexibility that exceeds current Euro NCAP occupant and pedestrian impact regulations.
The project consortium of Gordon Murray Design, Innoval Technology Limited, Constellium and Brunel University London’s BCAST aim to develop an iStream monocoque that is 30–40% lighter than the incumbent steel/glass fiber composite structure. Using a novel high-strength extrusion alloy combined with advanced composite panels based on recycled carbon fibre, the project aims to further reduce CO2 emissions through significant lightweighting, whilst maintaining the high-volume, low-cost benefits of the original disruptive iStream technology.
The project also aims to take another major step, making full use of the iStream process, towards a new generation of lightweight vehicles for the UK market that can have a major impact on the UK government’s carbon reduction targets for the UK vehicle fleet.
Lightweight Energy Absorbing Aluminium Structures (LEAAST); Partners: Jaguar Land Rover Limited (Lead), Luxfer Gas Cylinders Limited, Sarginsons Industries Limited, Advanced Forging and Forming Research Center, Innoval Technology Limited, Grainger & Worrall Limited, Norton Aluminium Limited, Constellium UK Limited, T. A. Savery & Co Limited. Lightweight crash management systems are of increasing importance for most forms of ground transport. Automotive OEMs like JLR have advanced aluminium automotive body designs but still depend on steel for bumper beams. For rail applications, steel-based crash systems predominate. Constellium has developed considerably stronger extrusion alloys based on the AA6xxx alloy system that are fully recycling compatible with the sheet used for automotive structures and body panels.
Brunel University London’s BCAST has developed alloys and casting technologies that enable extrusions and castings to be combined in novel ways to produce a new generation of compact lightweight crash management systems. The envisaged work program will include a high-strength alloy being combined with casting alloys using overcasting techniques and the use of bonded and riveted joints to demonstrate the potential for both increased crash resistance and weight saving. The project will demonstrate and evaluate optimized designs for crash management systems for both automotive and rail transport.
|2018/6/20 10:00||Green Car Congress||
Transportation Electrification Accord sets out multi-sector roadmap to electrified future
Fortune 100 companies, including automakers and utilities, have joined labor groups, consumer advocates, environmental organizations and others to sign the Transportation Electrification Accord— a written set of principles meant to inspire and continue the conversation around electrified transportation.
Advanced Energy Economy, Energy Foundation, Illinois Citizen Utility Board, Natural Resources Defense Council, Plug-in America and Sierra Club worked with diverse stakeholder and business interests to draft the Accord. The goal of the Accord is to educate policymakers on how to advance electric transportation in a manner that provides economic, social and environmental benefits.
We envision a world with zero emissions. That’s the future and the Accord lays out the essential building blocks for a compelling energy infrastructure that we can all rely on for decades to come. Innovations in transportation electrification will benefit society as a whole—and cross-industry, multi-stakeholder cooperation is key.
—Britta Gross, director, General Motors Advanced Vehicle Commercialization Policy
Signers, including General Motors, Honda, Proterra, Exelon, NationalGrid, PG&E, Siemens, the Alliance for Transportation Electrification, Consumer Federation of America, Ceres, Forth, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Plug In America, Sierra Club and many more, are committing to support the evolution of electric mobility and the development of programs to accelerate it, while stimulating innovation and competition in the marketplace.
It’s clear that the future of transportation will be electric. The Accord provides a baseline from which utility regulators can support growing demand for affordable, electrified transport. Our signature on the Accord is a promise to meet that demand through greater grid efficiency and reduced air pollution in a way that benefits all communities.
—Christopher Budzynski, director of utility strategy, Exelon Utilities
Regardless of policy uncertainty at the state and federal level, the Accord outlines how transportation electrification can be advanced by policymakers, public utility commissions and local and state governments in a manner that benefits utility customers and all forms of transportation.
Making the transition to an electrified transportation future requires long-term policy certainty. Certainty in the marketplace provides a signal to businesses to invest, thereby driving innovation and jobs. We believe the Accord provides foundational directions that will inspire policymakers.
—Chris King, chief policy officer, Siemens Digital Grid
The Accord outlines how transportation electrification can be advanced in a manner that benefits all utility customers and users of all forms of transportation, while supporting the evolution of a cleaner grid and stimulating innovation and competition for U.S. companies.
Context And Guiding Principles
There is a clear case for electrifying transportation, which can provide benefits to all consumers (including the socioeconomically disadvantaged), advance economic development, create jobs, provide grid services, integrate more renewable energy, and cut air pollution and greenhouse gases.
Electrified transportation should include, not only passenger cars, but also larger vehicles (e.g., transit buses and delivery trucks), as well as off-road equipment (e.g., airport and port electrification equipment).
Accelerating an appropriate deployment of electric vehicle charging infrastructure based on market penetration projections along highway corridors, as well as throughout local cities and towns, is a critical element of electrifying transportation.
It is critical to support electric transportation at the state and local government levels, whether it be through governors, state legislators, state commissions, state transportation agencies, state energy offices, mayors, or local governments.
Electric utilities regulated by state and local commissions and boards, who serve the interests of the state and the public at large, have made substantial progress in accelerating the retirement of costly and less efficient fossil generation, and are poised to continue to make progress in promoting innovation, spurring greater grid efficiencies, and reducing harmful air pollution.
Under appropriate rules, it is in the public interest to allow investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities to participate in and facilitate the deployment of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and/or supporting infrastructure for residential and commercial applications in their service territories to accomplish state and local policy goals. The distribution grid is incorporating new grid-edge features such as advanced demand response and distributed energy storage. In that broader context, utilities are well positioned to ensure that installed EVSE, whether owned by utilities or other parties, maximizes the public benefits of these innovations, through appropriate integration of these technologies in order to maximize electrical system benefits for all classes of customers.
The build out of EVSE must optimize charging patterns to improve system load shape, reduce local load pockets, facilitate the integration of renewable energy resources, and maximize grid value. Using a combination of time-based rates, smart charging and rate design, load management practices, demand response, and other innovative applications, EV loads should be managed in the interest of all electricity customers.
To drive innovation and foster competition in the transportation electrification space, it is vital that open charging standards or protocols are adopted for both front-end and back-end interoperability. An open system also promotes greater transparency of vital data and information, which can be shared with a variety of innovative companies. The guidelines developed by the Open Charge Alliance (OCA) should be used as the baseline. Data developed by third parties from behind-the-meter devices should also be made available to utilities for use in planning system architecture and EVSE.
Consumers and EV owners will benefit greatly from a smart, efficient, and open architecture throughout the EV infrastructure. Ensuring interoperability throughout the EV architecture means that consumers should be able to roam easily among the different networks, with a common identification and authentication process, with as little hassle as possible. In addition, key consumer protection principles should be adhered to for all deployed EVSE regardless of the EVSE owner, including transparent pricing and open access policies. Drivers who charge in a manner consistent with grid conditions should realize fuel cost savings. Mapping locations and signage of the stations should also be provided for all consumers.
Utilities should proactively engage their regulators, consumers and all stakeholders in developing rate designs, infrastructure deployment programs, and education and outreach efforts that benefit all utility customers and allow reasonable cost recovery, while accelerating widespread transportation electrification that supports a reliable and robust grid.
Best practices, standards and codes should be a priority for all transportation electrification infrastructure installations. As new open standards and more advanced security measures are developed, these should be implemented in a timely manner by all operators of EVSE. It is critical that industry participants continue to collaborate on consistent communication protocols between the vehicle, infrastructure and grid to ensure system safety, security and reliability.
|2018/6/20 9:30||Green Car Congress||
Volkswagen AG, Ford explore strategic alliance
Volkswagen AG and Ford Motor Company signed a Memorandum of Understanding and are exploring a strategic alliance designed to strengthen each company’s competitiveness and better serve customers globally.
The companies are exploring potential projects across a number of areas—including developing a range of commercial vehicles together to better serve the evolving needs of customers. The potential alliance would not involve equity arrangements, including cross ownership stakes.
Ford is committed to improving our fitness as a business and leveraging adaptive business models—which include working with partners to improve our effectiveness and efficiency. This potential alliance with the Volkswagen Group is another example of how we can become more fit as a business, while creating a winning global product portfolio and extending our capabilities.
We look forward to exploring with the Volkswagen team in the days ahead how we might work together to better serve the evolving needs of commercial vehicle customers—and much more.
—Jim Farley, Ford’s president of Global Markets. “
Markets and customer demand are changing at an incredible speed. Both companies have strong and complementary positions in different commercial vehicle segments already. To adapt to the challenging environment, it is of utmost importance to gain flexibility through alliances. This is a core element of our Volkswagen Group Strategy 2025. The potential industrial cooperation with Ford is seen as an opportunity to improve competitiveness of both companies globally.
—Dr. Thomas Sedran, Head of Volkswagen Group Strategy
The companies will provide updates and additional details as talks progress.
4th EU Electromobility Stakeholder Forum
Projects FREVUE, I-CVUE and ZeEUS, together with the European Commission, are glad to invite you to the 4th edition of the EU Electromobility Stakeholder Forum. This key e-mobility event will offer 2 days of learning, discussions and networking. A range of electrifying topics will be covered from urban design opportunities, multimodal and interoperable charging infrastructure, operational impact of electric vehicles right through to results achieved so far.
Electric Car Batteries Just Hit A Key Price Point
Electric vehicle demand in the past five years has soared in the US. The same is true worldwide. By the end of 2014, more than 700,000 total plug-in vehicles had been sold worldwide (plug-in hybrids and pure battery electrics), up from about 400,000 at the end of 2013. As of 2015, dozens of models of electric cars and vans are available for purchase, mostly in Europe, the United States, Japan, and China.
A major reason for the rapid jump in EV sales is the rapid drop in the cost of their key component -– batteries. The energy stored in a battery is measured by kilowatt-hour (kWh). The more kWh stored, the further the car can go on one charge, so a key metric for battery economics is the cost per kWh. The lower the cost, the cheaper it is to build an electric car with a significant range.
New steering system proposed to increase electric-car efficiency
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany and automotive supplier Schaeffler are working to develop a new type of steering system specifically for electric cars that could improve their efficiency.
As with most internal-combustion cars, electric cars use a power assist to decrease steering effort. This draws electricity from a car’s battery pack, affecting range, the two partners note. KIT and Schaeffler propose a system that does away with the standard apparatus of a steering column linked to the wheels by tie rods. Instead, the prototype system uses individual electric motors for each of the front wheels to steer.
Energy Ministry touts Thailand as electric vehicle hub
The Energy Ministry plans to give its full support to promoting Thailand as an electric vehicle (EV) production hub. Energy Minister Narongchai Akrasanee said his ministry would amend regulations and electricity transmission to allow access to electricity chargers at petrol stations. The policy is expected to help increase the sales of EVs at home, which would attract car makers to choose Thailandas a production base, he said.
Electric cars could cut oil imports 40% by 2030, says study
Electric cars could cut the UK’s oil imports by 40% and reduce drivers’ fuel bills by £13bn if deployed on a large scale, according to a new study.
An electric vehicle surge would deliver an average £1,000 of fuel savings a year per driver, and spark a 47% drop in carbon emissions by 2030, said the Cambridge Econometrics study.
The paper, commissioned by the European Climate Foundation, said that air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and particulates would be all but eliminated by mid-century, with knock-on health benefits from reduced respiratory diseases valued at over £1bn.