Green Car Congress - 切り抜き一覧
Audi investing ~€100M in charging infrastructure at German sites; 10% of parking spaces by mid-2022
Audi is working to electrify one in ten parking spaces at its German plants by mid-2022; most of these charging spaces will be accessible to the public. This independent concept is the largest charging infrastructure project carried out by a German employer. The ~€100-million investment provides Audi with a head start in terms of setup and operation expertise for the hardware and software of such charging concepts while also allowing the company to pilot a new business area of mobility. At the main plant in Ingolstadt alone, there will be 3,500 charging points available in the final development. There will be 1,000 charging points in Neckarsulm, just under 100 in Brussels and Győr. Likewise, charging infrastructure will be built at the factory in San José Chiapa. The company already offers expansive charging capacities at the training centers at Munich Airport. A separate project team has therefore been preparing and structuring the concept for the implementation since the middle of 2017. The fundamental decision to electrify 10% of all parking spaces was made a year earlier. The project team is responsible for planning the entire strategy, investment, and concept, and manages the setup and operation of the charging infrastructure as well as the billing of charging procedures at the Audi sites. In this context, the charging points are expanded to suit the needs of the employees and other people using the parking lot, the charging infrastructure is designed accordingly, operating rules are set, and a hotline and support are provided. Recording that complies with calibration law and invoicing of the charging procedures are further important aspects. At the sites in Brussels, Ingolstadt, and Neckarsulm, charging infrastructure with a total power input of 21 megawatts is already available. This corresponds to the power consumption of a small town with 14,000 inhabitants. This includes 600 charging points with an output of up to 22 kilowatts (kW) and 60 direct current charging points with an output between 50 and 350 kW. By the middle of 2022, there will be 4,500 charging points, each with an output of up to 22 kW, and approx. 50 more with an output of up to 350 kW each at the plant sites alone. A dynamic and intelligent load-management system will be controlling all power input across sites this year already, so the power connection does not need be expanded. In addition, there is the equipment of the three Audi Training Center locations at Munich airport. Audi’s largest individual charging park with a power input of 2.1 megawatts is connected to the grid here. In connection with the construction of the new ATC IV building, the solar power generated is used for the charging procedure in combination with a battery buffer storage device. The project team has also created its own navigation map on the basis of Google Maps that allows employees to see in real time where charging terminals are available. Invoicing via online systems and the integration in an internal settlement system are further services.
NY Governor Cuomo announces “Make-Ready” program for EV charging stations; >20K EV rebates approved
New York Governor Andrew M. Cuomo announced that the New York State Department of Public Service issued a report recommending the establishment of a statewide utility-supported “Make-Ready” Program that would provide incentives to light-duty electric vehicle supply equipment and infrastructure (EVSE&I) for both Level 2 and Direct Current Fast Charger (DCFC) stations. The Make-Ready Program would improve electric vehicle (EV) charging station economics by covering up to 90% of the costs to “make-ready” a site for EV charging; these costs currently present an economic barrier to EV charging station developers. The infrastructure required to “make-ready” a site for EV charging is a significant upfront investment for developers. Given the low penetration of EVs on the road today, it is difficult to recoup installation costs from charging revenues due to low station utilization. A typical DCFC station in New York is not expected to be profitable over the initial ten-year period of operations, barring utility investment in make-ready or another incentive source, given current station economics. By stimulating station development now and assuaging range anxiety, drivers will be more likely to transition to EVs early, accelerating achievement of the State’s goals and realizing the benefits associated with EVs. DPS Staff expects that improved charging station economics driven by increased utilization would support stepping down the incentive levels periodically during the Make-Ready Program, and the program would serve as an effective bridge to a fully self-sustained EVSE&I market.—NY Department of Public Service (DPS) whitepaper on EVSE&I In addition, the Governor announced that more than 20,000 rebates have been approved for New Yorkers to purchase electric cars under the Drive Clean Rebate initiative, which provides residents with a rebate of up to $2,000 for the purchase or lease of a new electric car from participating dealers. The report recommends that the Public Service Commission direct the State’s major electric utilities to build the grid infrastructure needed to enable installation of publicly accessible EV charging stations. To support EV deployment in New York, the report recommends a number of actions to leverage the utilities’ expertise and unique position to promote zero-emission vehicle adoption. The Commission has already approved initiatives to encourage the zero emission’s market, including residential time-of-use rates for EV charging and annual per-plug incentives to buy down the cost of installing publicly accessible direct current fast charger stations. The Commission has also approved a number of EV demonstration and pilot projects, and the utilities have developed the framework needed to rollout EVs. The “Make-Ready” Program would run through 2025 to coincide with New York’s goal of deploying 850,000 zero-emission vehicles by the end of that year. The program will improve EV economics for developers by covering up to 90% of the costs to make-ready a site for EV charging. The report also proposes that the utilities be required to incorporate EV charging scenarios into their annual capital planning processes to encourage thoughtful siting of charging infrastructure. Thoughtful siting of charging infrastructure will support reduced installation costs, improved site host acceptance and maximized use from drivers. An EV charging infrastructure forecast would require electric utilities to identify locations suitable for electric vehicle supply equipment and infrastructure siting, and to proactively educate developers on synergistic cost-saving opportunities. The report recommends that the utilities establish a common suitability criterion to identify potential public charging sites, with the objective of maximizing public charging utilization to ensure efficient use of customer funds invested and provide fair and equitable access and benefit to all utility customers, including those in disadvantaged communities. As EV prices come down and more EVs come to the market, it will be appropriate to develop more charging infrastructure in environmental justice communities—which have been disproportionately impacted by air pollution —and rural neighborhoods. Additionally, communities with low vehicle ownership rates, which are disproportionately impacted by air pollutants due to their proximity to heavily trafficked roads and highways, will benefit from a greater share of EVs on the roads. New York State has a number of initiatives to support medium and heavy-duty vehicle electrification underway, including bus fleets, which provide additional access to EVs and improved air quality for many disadvantaged communities. Fast-charger EV stations developed in the first year of the "Make-Ready" Program are expected to have positive financial returns for all regions and site configurations, except for the larger 150 kW stations located in Upstate New York. The report recommends that each region in Upstate New York be eligible for additional incentives to make four or more fast charging locations available in every region. The EVolve NY initiative, administered by the New York Power Authority, has committed $250 million to expand public fast charging along key transit corridors, creating new charging hubs in major cities and airports, and establishing electric vehicle-friendly model communities that will encourage residents to transition to driving electric vehicles. The additional infrastructure will complement the goals of the State’s Drive Clean Rebate initiative, a $70-million plug-in hybrid and electric car rebate and outreach initiative to encourage the growth of clean and non-polluting car use in New York, promote the reduction of carbon emissions in the transportation sector and help reduce vehicle prices for consumers. Of this, $55 million is dedicated to rebates of up to $2,000 for the purchase of a new plug-in hybrid electric car, all-electric car or hydrogen fuel cell car. The remaining $15 million is to support improving consumer awareness of electric cars and their many benefits, installing more charging stations across the state, developing and demonstrating new electric car-enabling technologies and other efforts to put more electric cars on New York’s roadways. The Make Ready program supports the Governor’s recent State-of-the-State announcement on electric vehicles calling on NYPA to install 10 or more fast-charging locations in every Regional Economic Development Council region by the end of 2022. The Governor’s EV policy also calls for every travel plaza on the New York State Thruway to have charging stations installed by NYPA by the end of 2024 and for at least 800 new chargers to be installed over the next five years. The recommendations in the report also build on New York’s successful EV expansion efforts through Governor Cuomo’s Charge NY initiative, which set and exceeded its ambitious goals of 30,000 EVs and 3,000 EV charging stations by the end of 2018. More than 45,000 electric vehicles have been purchased in New York since 2013—more than 48 other states—and New York has installed roughly 4,000 charging stations during the same period.
NJ Governor signs legislation establishing goals and incentives for increased use of plug-ins and charging infrastructure
New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy signed legislation (S2252) that establishes goals and incentives for the increased use of plug-in electric vehicles (BEV and PHEV) and infrastructure in New Jersey. (Earlier post.) The bill also codifies the Murphy Administration’s goal of 330,000 registered light-duty electric vehicles by 2025 and directs state-owned light-duty vehicles to be electric by 2035. The bill also specifies that at least 2 million of the total number of registered light duty vehicles in the state be plug-in electric vehicles by 31 December 2035, and that at least 85% of all new light duty vehicles sold or leased in the state be plug-in electric vehicles by 31 December 2040. The legislation directs the Department of Environmental Protection and Board of Public Utilities to establish goals for the electrification of medium and heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, NJ TRANSIT will move toward zero emission bus purchases by 2032. The bill also directs that by 31 December 2020, and every five years thereafter, the Department of Environmental Protection prepare and submit to the Governor and the Legislature a report that assesses the state of the plug-in electric vehicle market in New Jersey; measure the state’s progress toward achieving the goals outlined in the bill; identify barriers to the achievement of the goals; and make recommendations for legislative or regulatory action to address those barriers. The legislation creates a “Light Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicle Rebate Program” to encourage the purchase of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles over a ten-year period. The rebates will provide up to $5,000 per vehicle and will be funded by approximately $30 million from the Clean Energy Fund each year. The bill authorizes the use of Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative funds as well. Additionally, the bill grants the Board of Public Utilities the authority to also establish an incentive program for the purchase and installation of in-home electric vehicle charging equipment up to $500 per person. The bill authorizes BPU to deposit monies from the Clean Energy Fund into the newly established Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fund for these incentives in addition to the $30 million for the vehicle rebates.
Rolls-Royce develops electrical embedded starter-generator for next-generation Tempest fighter program
Over the last five years, Rolls-Royce has been pioneering world-first technology that will contribute to the UK’s next-generation Tempest program, which is developing a sixth-generation jet fighter for the British Royal Air Force and the Italian Aeronautica Militare (AMI). The “Team Tempest” consortium comprises the UK Ministry of Defense, BAE Systems, Rolls-Royce, Leonardo S.p.A. and MBDA. The fighter is intended to enter service in 2035; the UK government will spend £2 billion on the project. Rolls-Royce recognized that any future fighter aircraft will have unprecedented levels of electrical power demand and thermal load, all needing to be managed within the context of a stealthy aircraft. Before the launch of the Tempest program, Rolls-Royce had already started to address the demands of the future. Back in 2014, the company took on the challenge of designing an electrical starter generator that was fully embedded in the core of a gas turbine engine, now known as the Embedded Electrical Starter Generator or E2SG demonstrator program. The electrical embedded starter-generator will save space and provide the large amount of electrical power required by future fighters. Existing aircraft engines generate power through a gearbox underneath the engine, which drives a generator. In addition to adding moving parts and complexity, the space required outside the engine for the gearbox and generator makes the airframe larger, which is undesirable in a stealthy platform.—Conrad Banks, Chief Engineer for Future Programs at Rolls-Royce Phase two of this program has now been adopted as part of Rolls-Royce’s contribution to the Tempest program. The company has been continuously developing its capabilities in the aerospace market, from gas turbine technologies through to integrated power and propulsion systems. The goal is to provide not only the thrust that propels an aircraft through the sky, but also the electrical power required for all the systems on board as well as managing all the resulting thermal loads. Rolls-Royce is adapting to the reality that all future vehicles, whether on land, in the air or at sea will have significantly increased levels of electrification to power sensors, communications systems weapons, actuation systems and accessories, as well as the usual array of avionics. The launch of phase one of the E2SG program saw significant investment in the development of an integrated electrical facility—a unique test house where gas turbine engines can be physically connected to a DC electrical network. The launch of the second phase of the project in 2017 saw the inclusion of a second electrical generator connected to the other spool of the engine. It also included an energy storage system in the electrical network and the ability to intelligently manage the supply of power between all these systems. The two-spool mounted electrical machines allows, by combination of operation as either a motor or a generator, the production of a series of functional effects on the engine, including the transfer of power electrically between the two spools. As part of the E2SG program, Rolls-Royce is investigating the feasibility of using dual spool generation to influence the operability, responsiveness and efficiency of the engine. Another key technology under development is the Power Manager intelligent control system, which uses algorithms to make real time intelligent decisions about how to supply the current aircraft electrical demand while optimizing other factors including engine efficiency to reduce fuel burn or engine temperature to extend component life. Throughout the Tempest program, Rolls-Royce will be continuing to mature the electrical technologies demonstrated by the E2SG program, with a third phase of testing likely to include a novel thermal management system being integrated with the overall system, as well as more electric engine accessories. The company also intends to showcase a full-scale demonstrator of an advanced power and propulsion system. There will be new technologies in all parts of the gas turbine, including twin spool embedded generation to higher power levels, an advanced thermal management system, an energy storage system tailored to the expected duty cycle of the future fighter and an intelligent power management system which will be able to optimize the performance of both the gas turbine and the power and thermal management system.
FCA confirms discussions with Foxconn on China JV for electric vehicles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) confirmed that it is in discussions with Hon Hai Precision Ind. Co., Ltd. (Foxconn) regarding the potential creation of an equal joint venture to develop and manufacture in China new generation battery electric vehicles and engage in the IoV (Internet of Vehicles) business. The proposed cooperation, initially focused on the Chinese market, would enable the parties to bring together the capabilities of two established global leaders across the spectrum of automobile design, engineering and manufacturing and mobile software technology to focus on the growing battery electric vehicle market. The two are in the process of signing a preliminary agreement which will govern further discussions aimed at reaching final binding agreements in the next few months. There is no assurance that final binding agreements will be reached or will be reached in that timeframe. Founded in 1974, Foxconn achieved NT$5.2 trillion (US$174 billion) in revenue in 2018, and was ranked 24th among the Fortune Global 100 and 105th among the Forbes Global 2000. Foxconn is one of Apple’s key manufacturing partners.
Daimler developing battery-electric version of Econic HD truck; customer testing in 2021, series production in 2022
Daimler Trucks is taking the next step in its electrification of trucks with the battery-electric low-floor heavy-duty truck Mercedes-Benz eEconic. Customer testing of the eEconic for municipal use will begin in 2021. Selected customers will test the vehicles for their everyday practicality in actual applications. The experience gained from customer testing will flow directly into series production of the eEconic, which is to start in 2022. The eEconic is based on the eActros electric truck for heavy distribution, which will already go into series production in 2021. Natural gas version of the Mercedes-Benz Econic (Econic NGT) being put through its paces by AWS Abfallwirtschaft Stuttgart. The eEconic will at first be offered in the configuration 6x2/N NLA and will mainly be in demand as a waste-collection vehicle. Battery-electric trucks are very well suited for urban use in waste management due to the comparatively short and plannable daily routes of up to 100 kilometers with a high proportion of stop-and-go in inner-city traffic. With an anticipatory driving style, electrical energy can be recovered during braking to charge the battery, which further improves range and efficiency. Layout of the Mercedes-Benz eActros, upon which the eEconic is being based. We at Daimler Trucks & Buses want to offer all our new vehicles with CO2-neutral driving operation in our main sales regions by 2039. With our global platform strategy, we are applying uniform technologies and vehicle architectures also for electric vehicles worldwide, and can accelerate development enormously through synergies. The eEconic is based on our eActros, which is already in intensive practical use and will go into series production in 2021.—Gesa Reimelt, Head of E-Mobility Group Daimler Trucks & Buses The electric drive of the eEconic produces no local emissions and above all is quiet, characteristics that have a positive effect on the quality of life of residents and of the vehicle crew. The low-positioned “DirectVision cab” with a panoramic windscreen and glazed passenger door gives the driver direct visual contact with vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians – a crucial safety criterion in road traffic. The driver is supported by a large number of intelligent safety-assistance systems such as Sideguard Assist. Driver and crew get in and out of the vehicle using only two steps on the side facing away from traffic. This makes exiting the cab safe and helps to avoid accidents. The comfortable standing height in the interior also facilitates access. The Mercedes-Benz eActros heavy-duty truck with a range of approximately 200 kilometers is in intensive use with customers in Germany and Switzerland; the first customer handover took place in 2018. In the United States, the medium-duty Freightliner eM2 and the heavy-duty Freightliner eCascadia are also currently undergoing practical tests with customers. More than 140 FUSO eCanter light-duty trucks are already in use with customer in cities worldwide, including New York City, Tokyo, Berlin, London, Amsterdam, Paris and Lisbon. Since 2018, Daimler’s E-Mobility Group has been pooling the worldwide expertise of Daimler Trucks & Buses in the field of e-mobility and defining the strategy for electric components and products across brands and segments. The E-Mobility Group is developing a globally uniform electric architecture – analogous to the global platform strategy for conventional vehicles. In this way, synergies can be fully utilized and investments can be optimally deployed. At the same time, the E-Mobility Group offers comprehensive consulting for customers and focuses on the entire ecosystem with the goal to make e-mobility economically feasible also in terms of TCO (Total Cost of Ownership). The E-Mobility Group is set up globally with employees working in various locations throughout the company’s worldwide development network, i.e. in Portland (United States), Stuttgart (Germany) and Kawasaki (Japan). Daimler Trucks & Buses is pursuing a sustainable corporate strategy and aims to offer only new vehicles that are CO2-neutral in driving operation (“tank-to-wheel”) by 2039 in the three major markets of Europe, Japan and the NAFTA region. By 2022, the vehicle portfolio of Daimler Trucks & Buses in its main sales regions of Europe, the United States and Japan is to include series-production vehicles with battery-electric drive. By the end of the decade, Daimler Trucks & Buses will add hydrogen-powered series-production vehicles to its product range.
USDA seeking input on new higher ethanol blend sales infrastructure incentive program
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is seeking public input to help with the creation of the Higher Blends Infrastructure Incentive Program (HBIIP), a new program that will expand the availability of domestic ethanol and biodiesel by incentivizing the expansion of sales of renewable fuels. The USDA is exploring options to expand domestic ethanol and biodiesel availability and is seeking information on opportunities to consider infrastructure projects to facilitate increased sales of higher biofuel blends (E15/B20 or higher.) This effort will build on biofuels infrastructure investments and experience gained through the Biofuels Infrastructure Partnership (BIP). USDA administered BIP from 2016–2019 through state and private partners to expand the availability of E15 and E85 infrastructure to make available higher ethanol blends at retail gas stations around the country. This new Request for Information (RFI) solicits information on options for fuel ethanol and biodiesel infrastructure, innovation, products, technology, and data derived from all HBIIP processes and/or science that drive economic growth, promote health, and increase public benefit. Through this RFI, USDA seeks input from the public, including but not limited to: retail fueling stations, convenience stores, hypermarket fueling stations, fleet facilities, and similar entities with capital investments; equipment providers, equipment installers, certification entities and other stakeholder/manufacturers (both upstream and down); fuel distribution centers, including terminals and depots; and those performing innovative research, and/or developing enabling platforms and applications in manufacturing, energy production, and agriculture. This RFI is intended to gather suggestions on areas of greatest priority within the HBIIP, as well as past or future Federal government efforts to build, promote, and sustain the sale and use of renewable fuels. The public input provided in response to this RFI will inform USDA as well as private sector and other stakeholders with interest in and expertise relating to such a promotion.
Audi introduces Q5 TFSI e PHEV to US market; EPA-rated at 65 MPGe
Audi of America is introducing its first plug-in hybrid (PHEV) variant of its bestselling SUV, the Audi Q5. The Audi Q5 TFSI e (earlier post) will be joined by the A8 TFSI e and the Audi A7 TFSI e in the coming months. The Audi Q5 TFSI e is equipped with a turbocharged 2.0-liter four-cylinder TFSI engine coupled with an electric motor that sits between the engine and 7-speed S-tronic dual-clutch automatic transmission, producing a total combined system output of 362 hp and 369 lb-ft (500 N·m) of torque. The plug-in hybrid SUV performs nearly a second faster than the conventional Audi Q5 to sprint from 0-60 mph in 5.0 seconds. The SUV is standard equipped with quattro all-wheel drive with ultra technology. Offered as standard equipment on Audi TFSI e models, drivers have the option to adjust engine and battery usage with three capable modes specific to the plug-in system. Hybrid mode is activated automatically using route guidance in the MMI navigation system to optimize battery power over the route to help reduce fuel consumption based on a variety of data points including speed limits, types of roads, and the latest data from onboard sensors. The SUV automatically starts in EV mode, in which the car is driven exclusively using the battery as long as the driver does not press the accelerator past a variable, perceptible pressure point. In Battery Hold mode, the battery capacity is held at the current level—this is useful if the driver anticipates a need for it later on their route. In electric-only mode, using a 14.1 kWh lithium-ion battery, the Audi Q5 TFSI e has a range of 20 miles. This mode can be selected for driving scenarios when an engine might not be needed, while other modes that balance efficiency between the powertrains when selected. As a result of the TFSI and EV powertrain state, the SUV is EPA-rated at 65 MPGe. The powertrain of the plug-in hybrid SUV is specially tuned to provide the driver the most versatile driving experience. The electric motor assists the combustion engine through the boost function to achieve a higher horsepower and torque output than the gasoline engine can achieve on its own. When the driver takes his or her foot off the accelerator, the TFS engine can deactivate and coast using the battery. The combustion engine responds quickly to acceleration if needed, and is started back up nearly undetectably. The lithium-ion battery pack, located under the luggage compartment floor, is made up of 104 prismatic cells and stores 14.1 kWh of energy with a voltage of 381 volts. The climate control system uses a highly efficient heat pump that pools the waste heat from the high-voltage components. With 1 kW of electrical energy, it can generate up to 3 kW of thermal heating output for a more efficient climate system setup than found in the standard Audi Q5. When the adaptive cruise control (ACC) is active, the predictive efficiency assist is designed to enhance efficiency and comfort by supporting the driver’s accelerating and braking. The predictive efficiency assist adjusts the electric and conventional drive types to help ensure customers benefit from the vehicle’s electric range and low gasoline consumption. If the driver is driving without ACC, a haptic signal from the active accelerator pedal and a visual signal in the cockpit and head-up display indicate the proper time to let off the accelerator to use as much kinetic energy as possible. At the same time, symbols in the cockpit indicate the reason for the reduction in speed. There are indicators for: speed limits, town signs, curves and downhill slopes, traffic circles, intersections and highway exits. The 2020 Audi Q5 TFSI e quattro S tronic has a starting MSRP of $52,900. Audi anticipates that customers purchasing the 2020 Audi Q5 TFSI e will be eligible for a federal tax credit of up to $6,712. Additional state incentives may also be available. As a plug-in hybrid, the SUV will be eligible for Clean Air Vehicle Decals granting single occupancy use of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV or carpool) lanes in the state of California.
MISC, Samsung Heavy, Lloyd’s Register and MAN partner to develop ammonia-fueled tanker
MISC Berhad, Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), Lloyd’s Register and MAN Energy Solutions will work together on a joint development project (JDP) for an ammonia-fueled tanker to support shipping’s drive towards a decarbonized future. The creation of the alliance has been motivated by the partners’ shared belief that the maritime industry needs leadership and greater collaboration if shipping is to meet the International Maritime Organisation’s 2050 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission target, an ambition that requires commercially viable deep-sea Zero-Emission Vessels (ZEVs) are in operation by 2030. Ammonia is just one of the pathways towards zero-carbon emitting vessels. A 2019 study by A.P. Moller - Maersk and Lloyds Register found that alcohols, biomethane and ammonia are the bets positioned for zero net emisisons shipping. (Earlier post.) Ammonia is a carbon-free fuel and can be produced from renewable electricity. The energy conversion rate of this system is higher than that of biomaterial-based systems, but the production pathway cannot tap into potential energy sources such as waste biomass. The main challenge for ammonia is that it is highly toxic and even small accidents can create major risks to the crew and the environment. The transition from current to future applications is also a huge challenge for ammonia. In January 2019, MAN Energy announced it was developing an ammonia-fueled engine. This builds on the technology development pathway that MAN ES presented at the NH3 Energy+ Topical Conference at Pittsburgh in October 2018. The €5-million (USD$5.7-million) project will last two to three years and, if the shipowners decide to deploy the finished product, “the first ammonia engine could then be in operation by early 2022.” The partners recognize that the shipping industry will need to explore multiple decarbonization pathways and hope their collaboration will spur others in the maritime industry to join forces on addressing this global challenge. The partners believe that the creation of such alliances will send a clear message that shipping can progress itself to fit times and circumstances, ahead of regulatory action. The drive to decarbonise shipping will be a dominant focus of the decade ahead and follows a year of action in 2019 that saw the launch of Getting to Zero Coalition, an alliance of leading maritime, energy, infrastructure and finance companies committed to getting commercially viable deep-sea ZEVs powered by zero emission energy resources into operation by 2030. Shipping’s decarbonization as a shared obligation was also a key talking point during the Global Maritime Forum held in Singapore in October 2019 where more than 220 industry leaders congregated to discuss the challenges facing the shipping industry.
Jaguar Land Rover developing shape-shifting seat system to improve health
Jaguar Land Rover is developing a pioneering shape-shifting seat system designed to improve customer wellbeing by tackling the health risks of sitting down for too long. The ‘morphable’ seat, being trialed by Jaguar Land Rover’s Body Interiors Research division, uses a series of actuators in the seat foam to create constant micro-adjustments that make your brain think you’re walking, and could be individually tailored to each driver and passenger. More than a quarter of people worldwide—1.4 billion—are living increasingly sedentary lifestyles, which can shorten muscles in the legs, hips and gluteals causing back pain. The weakened muscles also mean you are more likely to injure yourself from falls or strains. By simulating the rhythm of walking, a movement known as pelvic oscillation, the technology can help mitigate against the health risks of sitting down for too long on extended journeys with UK drivers covering an average of 146 miles every week. Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles already feature the latest in ergonomic seat design, with multi-directional adjustments, massage functions and climate control fitted across the range. Dr Steve Iley, Jaguar Land Rover Chief Medical Officer, has also issued advice on how to adjust your seat to ensure the perfect driving position, from removing bulky items in your pocket, to shoulder positioning and from ensuring your spine and pelvis are straight to supporting your thighs to reduce pressure points. The research is part of Jaguar Land Rover’s commitment to continually improving customer wellbeing through technological innovation. Previous projects have included research to reduce the effects of motion sickness and the implementation of ultraviolet light technology to stop the spread of colds and flu.
USDOT advocates retaining transportation safety spectrum, announces first responder program
The US Department of Transportation intends to invest up to $38 million for a multimodal First Responder Safety Technology Pilot Program. US Secretary of Transportation Elaine L. Chao announced the new program on 15 January at the 2020 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. First responders face serious risks to their safety as they provide life-saving services. Each year, there are an estimated 46,000 crashes; 17,000 estimated people injured; and nearly 150 fatalities involving emergency response vehicles (ERVs), which include law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services vehicles. These crashes, which often occur at signalized intersections, prevent immediate emergency response services. The deployment of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) applications, using the 5.9 GHz Safety Band (earlier post), which includes technologies that enable communication between intersection signals and ERVs, has the potential to address this critical safety issue. These systems will use the 5.9 Gigahertz Safety Band of spectrum currently allocated for use in transportation systems. We believe it is very important to retain this bandwidth for this purpose, and the Department is actively advocating the FCC to do so.—Secretary Chao Grants will allow awardees to equip ERVs, related infrastructure (such as traffic signals), and public transit with V2X technologies, to enhance the safety of ERVs and the traveling public—helping first responders to provide immediate response. Targeted federal investment will help to demonstrate the benefits of V2X technology for ERVs throughout the country and generate additional tangible transportation safety benefits from using the 5.9 GHz Safety Band. The FCC is exploring taking the 75 megahertz of spectrum in the 5.9 Ghz band currently allocated for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) for the transportation and automotive industries and to reallocate it for different services. (Earlier post.)
Hyundai and Kia make €100M strategic investment in Arrival to co-develop electric commercial vehicles
Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corporation today made a strategic investment of €100 million (US $110 million) in a new partnership with Arrival, a UK-based electric vehicle startup (earlier post). Of the total investment, Hyundai will contribute €80 million; Kia €20 million. Through the partnership, Hyundai and Kia plan to introduce competitively priced small and medium-sized electric vans and other products for logistics, on-demand ride-hailing and shuttle service companies. Arrival’s scalable electric platform can be adapted for multiple vehicle categories and types which Arrival, Hyundai and Kia will explore for the development of a range of Purpose Built Vehicles (PBV). The partnership with Arrival will help Hyundai and Kia meet the rapidly growing demand in Europe for eco-friendly commercial vehicles, and accelerate the brands’ transformation from car makers to clean-mobility providers. Founded in 2015, Arrival has production plants and R&D centers in the US, Germany, Tel Aviv, Russia and the UK. The company’s strength lies in its skateboard vehicle platform with a modular component structure, a cost-effective base which incorporates a battery pack, electric motor and driveline components. Fully-scalable to accommodate multiple vehicle types, the platform can be used to accelerate vehicle development to meet diverse customer needs. Currently, Arrival is carrying out pilot projects with multiple logistics companies in Europe using cargo vans manufactured with the technology. With the rapid global growth in online shopping, the volume of light commercial vehicles in urban areas has increased. The demand for eco-friendly commercial vehicles is expected to continue growing as environmental regulations tighten. From 2021, the EU will introduce the world’s most stringent vehicle emission regulations, limiting each automaker’s fleet-wide average CO2 emissions by around 27%, from 130 g/km to 95 g/km. By working with Arrival, Hyundai and Kia plan to supply eco-friendly vans and other commercial vehicles—built in volume and based on Arrival’s platform —to European logistics companies and mobility companies that provide on-demand ride-hailing and shuttle services. Hyundai and Kia recently announced the development of fully-electric Purpose Built Vehicles (PBVs). Hyundai presented its PBV concept as one of the smart mobility solutions at CES 2020 earlier this month. At its CEO Investor Day on 14 January, Kia also announced its plan to develop PBVs for shared-service companies and logistics companies. The partnership with Arrival enables Hyundai to accelerate its two-track strategy to deliver battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell solutions for the European commercial vehicle market. To further support that strategy, Hyundai recently established Hyundai Hydrogen Mobility (HHM), the joint venture between Hyundai and Swiss hydrogen energy company H2 Energy. It aims to export 1,600 hydrogen fuel cell trucks to Europe by 2025, following the first export to Europe on 3 January as part of a pilot program. Hyundai and Kia are exploring partnerships with various businesses to build a leadership position in the rapidly expanding global EV market. In May 2019, Hyundai and Kia invested KRW 100 billion (US $90 million) in Rimac, a Croatian high-performance electric vehicle company, focusing on collaborative research to secure capabilities to lead the global high-performance electric vehicle market. In September 2019, Hyundai and Kia also invested in IONITY, Europe’s largest high-power electric vehicle charging network, and set the stage for sales expansion of EVs within Europe.
Street network patterns reveal global trend towards increasing urban sprawl
New research from McGill University and the University of California, Santa Cruz has found that the local streets of the world’s cities are becoming less connected, a global trend that is driving urban sprawl and discouraging the use of public transportation. The new study, published in an open-access paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is the first global history of sprawl as measured by local connectivity of street networks. The research relied on publicly available data sourced from OpenStreetMap, the Wikipedia of maps, and satellite-derived data. The result of a 7-year collaboration, the study was able to show that in large parts of the world, recent urban growth has increasingly resulted in inflexible and disconnected street networks. Different forms of gated communities were also found to be on the rise globally. SNDi for streets added years 2000 to 2014. Inset charts the distribution at the country level of the street-network disconnectedness index (SNDi) for streets added in each of the 4 time periods. Barrington-Leigh and Millard-Ball The pattern of new urban and residential roads represents an essentially permanent backbone that shapes new urban form and land use in the world’s cities. Thus, today’s choices on the connectivity of streets may restrict future resilience and lock in pathways of energy use and CO2 emissions for a century or more. In contrast to the corrective trend observed in the United States, where streets have become more connected since the late 20th century, we find that most of the world is building ever-more disconnected “street-network sprawl.” A rapid policy response, including regulation and pricing tools, is needed to avoid further costly lock-in during this current, final phase of the urbanization process.—Barrington-Leigh and Millard-Ball Christopher Barrington-Leigh and collaborator Adam Millard-Ball, an associate professor in the Environmental Studies Department at the University of California Santa Cruz, built a Street-Network Disconnectedness Index to create a global street connectivity map. Their data showed that southeast Asia is now home to some of the most sprawling cities on the planet – —and sprawl is getting worse. Gridded street networks, on the other hand, promote efficient, dense urban form in Bolivia, Argentina and Peru. Germany, Denmark and the UK have been able to maintain moderate levels of street connectivity due to pedestrian and bicycle pathways, offering greater connectivity to non-motorized travel. In conjunction with the study’s publication, the authors are launching an online interactive map through which visitors can explore street connectivity around the world. The web site can also be used for making animations showing how street connectivity has changed in a given area. Past research has shown that the increased accessibility offered by gridded street networks makes walking, cycling and the use of public transit much simpler while cul-de-sacs tend to encourage the use of personal motorized vehicles. Barrington-Leigh said urban planners thus need to think about connectivity at the most local scale when designing and planning new streets in order to make cities more sustainable. Streets and roads represent an essentially permanent backbone that shapes all other dimensions of urban form and land use. Policy makers should look to cities like Tokyo and Buenos Aires for inspiration on how to limit sprawl. On our current path, choices that limit street connectivity may restrict future resilience and lock in pathways of energy use, CO2 emissions, health outcomes, and other aspects of our lifestyle for a century or more.—Christopher Barrington-Leigh The methodology used to build the connectivity index and maps is described in a paper previously published in PLOS. This study received financial support from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Hellman Fellows Program and a UC Santa Cruz Faculty Research Grant. Resources Christopher Barrington-Leigh and Adam Millard-Ball (2020) “Global trends towards urban street-network sprawl” PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1905232116 Christopher Barrington-Leigh and Adam Millard-Ball (2019) “A global assessment of street-network sprawl”PLOS ONE doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223078
Solaris and Poznań University of Technology work on advanced driver assistance system intended for electric buses
In cooperation with Poznań University of Technology, Solaris is developing an advanced driver assistance system for city buses, mostly electric ones. Devised jointly by engineers of Solaris and of the Poznań University of Technology, the system will facilitate the performance of simple and complex maneuvers, such as driving forward and backward or parking, but it will also constitute an invaluable support when carrying out precise movements—such as docking the pantograph to the charging station—which may prove challenging in the case of articulated vehicles. The goal of the project is to improve the safety of passengers and drivers of buses in city traffic. Moreover, it will help operators with maneuvers on bus depot premises. The new system will also ensure optimal energy consumption by the vehicles. In the past few weeks, the authors of the project—dubbed ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System)—performed tests in front of the Municipal Stadium in Poznań. The tests allowed to optimise the driver assistance system used in the Solaris bus. For research purposes, the Solaris R&D Department designed and installed a mobile pantograph charging mast set up on the square in front of the stadium. The firm also supplied a bus featuring the system designed and supplied by the Poznań University of Technology. Using the system, the bus is capable of recognizing a charging mast, and consequently, it will be able to precisely show the driver where to dock the pantograph under the charging station. With the software which the consortium is developing, the vehicle will concurrently self-locate and create a map of the surroundings, in order to identify other road users on that map. The system is based on a neural network which enables the system to recognize specified objects in various weather conditions. Data transmitted from the ADAS sensors will be analyzed so as to best use and fine-tune the operation of the software. The tests will also allow to check the operation of algorithms during the docking of vehicles under a station and to optimise their values. The Poznań University of Technology has been our long-standing partner for the development of drive technology and of various types of systems constituting the equipment of our buses. Thanks to our close collaboration, we are able to give our customers improved, more modern solutions, essential in the everyday use of vehicles. This project will considerably ease the daily work of bus drivers, and it will allow them to perform precise, but above all safe, maneuvers.—Michał Pikuła, Director for Bus Development at Solaris Bus & Coach The tested system is ultimately intended for electric vehicles. The project “Advanced driver assistance system for precise maneuvers of non-articulated and articulated city buses” (project acronym ADAS) is subsidized under Measure 4.2: “Sectoral R+D programmes” of the Operational Programme Smart Growth 2014-2020, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (POIR.04.01.02-00-0081/17).
Amazon adds 40 Streetscooter and 10 Mercedes-Benz eVito electric vans to Munich fleet
Amazon has ordered 40 StreetScooter WORK Box electric vans which will be deployed at its distribution center in Munich Daglfing. Complementing the vehicle order, StreetScooter has also installed 60 charging stations at the Amazon site. Streetscooter WORK Box van Amazon has also taken delivery of 10 Mercedes-Benz battery-electric eVito vans at the Munich-Daglfing site. More vehicle deliveries are planned for the future in order to further expand Amazon's electrically operated fleet. Mercedes-Benz e-Vito van. Amazon is committed to achieving the Paris agreement targets ten years ahead of schedule—in 2040 instead of 2050—so we are collaborating with a number of different partners developing new technologies and helping promote a carbon-neutral economy. We look forward to working with StreetScooter and using their expertise to add additional electric vehicles and charging stations to our network and achieve carbon-neutral delivery operations. [Also] strong partnerships such as this one with Daimler will enable us to achieve this aim.—Adam Elman, Senior Lead Sustainability, Amazon Europe StreetScooter’s Made-in-Germany e-vans not only proved their ability to handle the heavy demands of last-mile delivery, but scored points for economy and ROI as well. According to Jörg Sommer, CEO of StreetScooter GmbH, StreetScooter performs better in total cost of ownership after just a few years as compared to conventional combustion-engine vehicles. The eVito features an installed battery capacity of 41 kWh, offering a range of between 150 and 184 km. The battery-electric drive delivers 85 kW of output and can reach a torque figure of up to 295 N·m which is optimally tailored to urban operations. The top speed can be configured according to the intended use at the time of ordering.
Volvo Cars and China Unicom collaborate on 5G communication technology development in China
Volvo Cars and leading telecom provider China Unicom are joining forces on using 5G next generation mobile network technology for communication between cars and infrastructure in China. The two companies have agreed to work together in researching, developing and testing automotive applications of 5G and emerging vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology. As the fifth generation of mobile network technology, 5G is many times faster, has a higher data capacity and offers lower response times than its 4G predecessor. As more data can be transferred to and from cars more quickly and with less latency, more applications for cars become possible. Volvo Cars and China Unicom are investigating a range of different applications of 5G technology in the communication between cars and infrastructure in China, identifying potential improvements in areas such as safety, sustainability, customer convenience and autonomous driving. For example, when a car is aware of upcoming traffic issues such as road works, congestion or accidents, it can take pre-emptive action such as slowing down or suggesting a different route. This can help boost traffic safety for people inside the car, while avoiding start-and-stop traffic improves efficient energy use. Other examples include the possibility for cars to find open parking spots easier with the help of traffic cameras. Cars may also communicate with traffic lights in order to establish an optimal speed and create a so-called ‘green wave’, and with each other to optimise safe exits and entries from and onto highways. China is currently rolling out 5G across major cities in the nation with the support of China Unicom and others. Like most regions, China is also widely expected to implement its own regional standards for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technologies. Volvo Cars’ collaboration with China Unicom helps it to be suitably prepared for local requirements and create a strong presence in V2X in its biggest market. Volvo Cars plans to introduce 5G connectivity as part of the next generation of Volvos, based on the next generation SPA2 modular vehicle architecture.
Toyota invests $394M in, collaborates with Joby on air mobility
Toyota is collaborating with Joby Aviation (Joby), an aerospace company that is developing and commercializing all-electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft to enable the deployment of fast, quiet and affordable air transportation services. The collaboration reflects Toyota’s recognition of the long-term potential of the urban air mobility market to meet the evolving needs of society, as well as Joby’s position as an industry leader in working to deliver safe and affordable air travel to everyone. Joby’s eVTOL Air transportation has been a long-term goal for Toyota, and while we continue our work in the automobile business, this agreement sets our sights to the sky. As we take up the challenge of air transportation together with Joby, an innovator in the emerging eVTOL space, we tap the potential to revolutionize future transportation and life. Through this new and exciting endeavor, we hope to deliver freedom of movement and enjoyment to customers everywhere, on land, and now, in the sky.—Toyota Motor Corporation President and CEO Akio Toyoda As the lead investor in Joby’s $590-million Series C financing, Toyota is continuing to leverage emerging technologies to provide "Mobility for All." In addition to investing $394 million in Joby, Toyota will share its expertise in manufacturing, quality and cost controls for the development and production of Joby Aviation’s eVTOL aircraft. Joby’s design is well matched to serve the needs of an emerging air transportation market where commuters and travelers embrace the benefits of aviation on a daily basis within and between urban centers. More details of the prototype aircraft and production plans will be announced at a later date. This collaboration with Toyota represents an unprecedented commitment of money and resources for us, and for this new industry, from one of the world's leading automakers. Toyota is known globally for the quality and reliability of their products driven by meticulous attention to detail and manufacturing processes. I am excited to harness Toyota’s engineering and manufacturing prowess to drive us toward our dream of helping a billion people save an hour+ commuting time every day.—Joby Aviation founder and CEO JoeBen Bevirt Both companies believe that leveraging synergies with the automobile technologies as well as integrating best practices from the Toyota Production System will help facilitate the efficient mass production of these aircraft, while also helping Joby deliver high quality, durable and reliable aircraft, and meeting exacting safety standards. Toyota Motor Corporation Executive Vice President Shigeki Tomoyama will join Joby’s board of directors and play an active role in setting strategic direction at the Board level. Toyota is embracing emerging technologies as it transforms into a mobility company that is better equipped to meet the unique mobility needs of individuals everywhere. The new collaboration with Joby Aviation is anticipated to help bring urban on-demand air transportation into the mainstream and initiate a new category of moving people and goods. Toyota anticipates that eVTOLs will help to create new mobility services with the potential to help alleviate persistent mobility challenges. Those challenges include traffic congestion in urban areas, increased environmental burden and the lack of transportation in underpopulated areas, among others. Joby is a leader in the development of eVTOL aircraft which combine elements of helicopters and small airplanes, offering benefits that include high reliability, zero emissions, fast flight speeds and quiet operations. The aircraft also offers lower operating costs, lower costs of maintenance, and enhanced safety features.
BMW i Ventures invests in optical AI software company Alitheon
BMW i Ventures has invested in Alitheon, an optical AI software creator and deep-tech startup developing generative engineering software aimed at automating the product development process. All objects—even those that are indistinguishable to the human eye—have unique surface characteristics. Alitheon’s FeaturePrint technology uses off-the-shelf cameras and proprietary software to identify and convert those unique characteristics into a digital model of the object called a FeaturePrint. An object is registered by creating a FeaturePrint and storing it in the cloud or local database. Registered objects can be subsequently identified by creating another FeaturePrint and comparing it to the database of registered objects. If there is a match, the object is identified as the original and all associated metadata can be accessed. Alitheon will use the new funding to expand its FeaturePrint technology across the defense, aerospace, aviation services, automotive, semiconductor, luxury goods, additive manufacturing, pharmaceutical and government sectors. Alitheon’s FeaturePrint technology transforms how objects, components and finished products are authenticated, tracked and traced across supply chains and distribution systems throughout the world. Once registered by Alitheon’s optical artificial intelligence system, any individual item can be subsequently identified wherever it exists to verify authenticity, determine place and time of origin, detect signs of tampering, measure wear and identify grey market and counterfeit products including unauthorized “over runs” and previously rejected products. Alitheon’s ability to identify an item using only the object itself—independent of markings, tags or other modifications—is groundbreaking. FeaturePrint technology has the potential to bring a new level of trust to supply chains that does not currently exist.—Marcus Behrendt, Partner, BMW i Ventures Alitheon has 34 issued patents with many more pending, and its founders have three decades of experience developing expert and AI systems for identifying product tampering, counterfeiting and security threats. Alitheon’s founders helped create the first machine vision-based explosives detection systems and have also developed fraud detection systems, satellite image analysis software and other mission-critical automated systems for governments, corporations and non-profits worldwide. A FeaturePrint registration or authentication can be performed in milliseconds at industrial production speeds without human involvement using off-the-shelf hardware integrated at any step throughout manufacturing and distribution. Our mission is straightforward: to create enduring trust among manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and customers.—Scot E. Land, Alitheon’s CEO and Co-Founder
Electrify America invests $1.3M in SMUD Energy StorageShares program
Electrify America is investing $1.3 million in the Energy StorageShares program developed by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The investment will help Electrify America reduce its overall energy-related costs and lower the company’s impact on Sacramento’s electrical grid. This first-of-a-kind program will help address peak energy demands, minimize impacts to the grid and support the expansion of EV charging in our community. A program like this also continues to move us toward a carbon free economy by enabling higher levels of renewable generation to be integrated with the grid.—SMUD CEO and General Manager Arlen Orchard Electrify America will purchase an interest in an energy storage program with the utility company. This will help reduce Electrify America’s demand charges and increase the overall grid benefit of its energy storage. Demand charges are presently the largest operating cost barrier to public EV infrastructure deployment, representing up to 80% of a given electricity bill. The program incentivizes placement of energy storage in grid-stressed locations in Sacramento while providing Electrify America with potential reductions in demand charges for its SMUD service territory-located sites. SMUD plans to site the utility battery in a location where significant load growth is expected over the next five years. The Energy StorageShares program developed by SMUD offers an innovative approach to invest in the electrical grid here in Sacramento and lowering our costs in lieu of installing individual battery storage systems at each of our 12 electric vehicle charging stations powered by SMUD. This is a win-win opportunity benefiting all parties involved and a great example of how utilities and the private market can work together to further the deployment of EV infrastructure. Plus, this further supports our Green City investment in the Sac-to-Zero program of an EV infrastructure, zero-emissions car sharing, electric buses and shuttles.—Robert Barrosa, director of utility strategy and operations at Electrify America Under this agreement, Electrify America will receive recurring credits for the demand reduction needs at the company’s 12 electric vehicle charging stations powered by SMUD in the Sacramento area. The Green City program called Sac-to-Zero—which includes two new car sharing services, new ZEV bus and shuttle routes, and state-of-the-art electric vehicle charging systems throughout the region—is part of Electrify America’s Green City Initiative, which was announced by the company and city officials in 2017. Electrify America’s Green City Sac-to-Zero investments include: Car sharing – Electrify America has invested in two ZEV car share services within the City of Sacramento which complement each other with different service areas while providing the same easy access: GIG Car Share – Free Float Car Sharing: GIG Car Share, which is managed by AAA Northern California, Nevada, and Utah, offers free float car share service in Sacramento. Envoy – Round Trip Car Sharing: Electrify America also invested in a program with Envoy Technologies, a community-based EV car-share service based at residential buildings as an amenity. Vehicles can be reserved, picked up and returned to the same location. ZEV bus/shuttle services – Electrify America invested in a ZEV bus service and an on-demand micro-shuttle service. To support powering the fleets, Electrify America is installing charging stations with ultra-fast chargers to power each service. Electric Bus Service – Causeway Connection: Electrify America’s investment enhances bus service between Sacramento and the City of Davis with 12 new electric buses that will run from the main campus to the UC Davis Health campus in Sacramento. The shuttle will be co-run by Sacramento Regional Transit (SacRT) and the Yolo County Transportation District. On-Demand Electric Shuttle Service – Franklin Region: Electrify America has provided the funding for battery electric shuttles to replace the existing internal combustion engine shuttles that currently operate on this SmaRT Ride service operated by Sacramento Regional Transit. EV charging infraastructure – Twelve of Electrify America’s 14 ultra-fast EV charging stations in the Sacramento region available to the public are powered by SMUD. The charging stations have a range of power from 50 kilowatts (kW), which is most commonly used in today’s electric vehicles, to 150 and 350kW. This future-proof charging technology will meet the needs of all electric vehicles available today and the advanced EVs expected as early as 2020. The Electrify America ultra-fast charging technology can deliver energy up to 20 miles of range per minute.
Isuzu and Honda to conduct joint research on fuel-cell-powered heavy-duty trucks
Isuzu Motors Limited and Honda R&D Co., Ltd., a R&D subsidiary of Honda Motor Co., Ltd., agreed to undertake joint research on heavy-duty trucks, utilizing fuel cells (FC) as the powertrain. As a commercial vehicle manufacturer committed to support transportation, Isuzu has been striving to promote the utilization of low-carbon and sustainable energy. To that end, Isuzu has been researching and developing various powertrains including clean diesel engine, engines for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) and electric vehicle (EV) powertrains, which accommodate a broad range of customer needs and how vehicles are used. In parallel, Honda has been working toward the realization of a carbon-free society and, to this end, in addition to hybrid and battery electric vehicles, Honda has been researching and developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), the ultimate environmental technology, for more than 30 years. There are still some issues that need to be addressed to popularize the use of FC and hydrogen energy, including issues related to cost and infrastructure. These issues need to be tackled not only by individual companies but more expansively through industry-wide initiatives. Against this backdrop, Isuzu was striving to expand its lineup of next-generation powertrains for heavy-duty trucks, and Honda was striving to expand application of its FC technologies beyond use for passenger vehicles, which will represent progress toward the realization of a hydrogen society. Sharing the same technological research goals, the two companies reached an agreement to conduct joint research on heavy-duty FC trucks. Taking advantage of the respective strengths each company has amassed over a long period of time, that is, Isuzu’s strengths in the development of heavy-duty trucks and Honda’s strengths in the development of FC, the two companies will strive to establish the foundation for basic technologies such as FC powertrain and vehicle control technologies. Commenting on the new partnership, David Leggett, Automotive Editor at GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company, said: Hydrogen fuel-cell technology is not cheap to develop, so the collaboration between Isuzu and Honda makes sense for both. The development of these cells for use in freight transportation and logistics could well turn out to be a significant step in the long-term transition to a cleaner, hydrogen-based economy. Hydrogen fuel-cells is an emerging technology that shows big promise for a low-carbon transportation future, despite current refueling infrastructure constraints. Companies are waking up to the suitability of hydrogen fuel-cells for heavy-duty freight and commercial vehicle applications, which offer the advantage of zero-emissions and potentially a long range between refueling—as much as 400km. Other battery-based electric drive technologies, which are increasingly seen in passenger cars and light delivery vehicles, are less suitable for the transportation of heavy loads over long distances. √
New highly efficient catalyst for photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction toward methane
Researchers at the University of Michigan, McGill University and McMaster University have developed a binary copper−iron catalyst for photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction toward methane. The work, presented in a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), offers a unique, highly efficient, and inexpensive route for solar fuels synthesis. The calculations of reaction energetics suggest that Cu and Fe in the binary system can work in synergy to significantly deform the linear configuration of CO2 and reduce the high energy barrier by stabilizing the reaction intermediates, thus spontaneously favoring CO2 activation and conversion for methane synthesis. Experimentally, the designed CuFe catalyst exhibits a high current density of −38.3 mA⋅cm−2 using industry-ready silicon photoelectrodes with an impressive methane Faradaic efficiency of up to 51%, leading to a distinct turnover frequency of 2,176 h−1 under air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) one-sun illumination.—Zhou et al. The solar-powered catalyst is made from abundant materials and works in a configuration that could be mass-produced. The researchers think that it could be recycling smokestack carbon dioxide into clean-burning fuel within 5-10 years. Thirty percent of the energy in the US comes from natural gas. If we can generate green methane, it’s a big deal.—Zetian Mi, U-M professor of electrical engineering and computer science, who co-led the work with Jun Song, professor of materials engineering at McGill University The chief advance is that the team has harnessed relatively large electrical currents with a device that should be possible to mass produce. It’s also especially good at channeling that electricity toward forming methane, with half of the available electrons going toward methane-producing reactions rather than toward by-products such as hydrogen or carbon monoxide. Previous artificial photosynthesis devices often operate at a small fraction of the maximum current density of a silicon device, whereas here we operate at 80 or 90 percent of the theoretical maximum using industry-ready materials and earth abundant catalysts.—lead author Baowen Zhou Turning carbon dioxide into methane is a very difficult process. The carbon must be harvested from CO2, which requires a great deal of energy because carbon dioxide is one of the most stable molecules. Likewise, H2O must be broken down to attach the hydrogen to the carbon. Each carbon needs four hydrogen atoms to become methane, making for a complicated eight-electron dance (each carbon-hydrogen bond has two electrons in it, and there are four bonds). The design of the catalyst is critical to the success of the reaction. Song’s theoretical and computational work identified the key catalyst component: nanoparticles of copper and iron. The copper and iron hold onto molecules by their carbon and oxygen atoms, buying time for hydrogen to make the leap from the water molecule fragments onto the carbon atom. The device is a sort of solar panel studded with nanoparticles of copper and iron. It can use the sun’s energy or an electrical current to break down the carbon dioxide and water. The base layer is a silicon wafer, not unlike those already in solar panels. That wafer is topped with nanowires, each 300 nanometers (0.0003 millimeters) tall and about 30 nanometers wide, made of the semiconductor gallium nitride. An electron microscope image shows the semiconductor nanowires. These deliver electrons to metal nanoparticles, which turn carbon dioxide and water into methane. Image credit: Baowen Zhou The arrangement creates a large surface area over which the reactions can occur. The nanoparticle-flecked nanowires are covered with a thin film of water. The device can be designed to run under solar power alone, or the methane production can be amped up with a supplement of electricity. Alternatively, running on electricity, the device could potentially operate in the dark. In practice, the artificial photosynthesis panel would need to be connected to a source of concentrated carbon dioxide—for example, carbon dioxide captured from industrial smokestacks. The device may also be configured to produce synthetic natural gas (syngas) or formic acid, a common preservative in animal feed. The research is funded by Emissions Reduction Alberta and the Natural Sciences, Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Blue Sky Program at the U-M College of Engineering. U-M holds multiple patents on this catalyst and is seeking partners to bring it to market. Resources Baowen Zhou, Pengfei Ou, Nick Pant, Shaobo Cheng, Srinivas Vanka, Sheng Chu, Roksana Tonny Rashid, Gianluigi Botton, Jun Song, and Zetian Mi (2020) “Highly efficient binary copper−iron catalyst for photoelectrochemical carbon dioxide reduction toward methane” PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1911159117
Ammonia-salt solvent pretreatment for biomass could significantly reduce cost of cellulosic biofuels
A Rutgers-led team has developed a new biomass pretreatment process that could make it much cheaper to produce biofuels such as ethanol from plant waste and reduce reliance on fossil fuels. The approach, featuring an ammonia-salt-based solvent that rapidly turns plant fibers into sugars needed to make ethanol, works well at close to room temperature, unlike conventional processes, according to their open-access paper in the journal Green Chemistry. Our pretreatment system can slash by up to 50-fold the use of enzymes to turn solvent-treated cellulose (plant fiber) into glucose (a sugar) used to make bioproducts like ethanol. Similar processes could greatly reduce the cost of producing biofuels from waste biomass like corn stalks and leaves.—lead author Shishir P. S. Chundawat Next-generation ammonia-salt based pretreatment processes facilitate efficient breakdown of waste biomass such as corn stalks, leaves and other residue. Image: Shih-Hsien Liu/ORNL and Shishir Chundawat/Rutgers University–New Brunswick The solvent can also extract more than 80% of the lignin in plant waste. Lignin, which binds to and fortifies plant fibers, could be used to help upgrade valuable aromatic chemicals in the future, according to Chundawat. The research benefited from collaborative efforts and access to a high-tech Bio-SANS instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis of how complex biological systems such as plant waste respond during processing to better understand how cellulose is dissolved at a molecular level. Corn stalks, leaves and other residue (corn stover) and switchgrass, for example, have tightly packed cellulose microfibrils, which are tiny strands thinner than fibers. Microfibrils are difficult to break down using enzymes or microbes, making it hard to turn many plant-based materials in biomass into biofuels or biochemicals. Speeding up the conversion of cellulose into sugars such as glucose with enzymes requires suitable solvents or heat- and/or chemical-based pretreatments. In the last 150 years, several solvents that can break down cellulose fibers have been explored. But most solvents remain costly or require extreme ranges of operating pressures or temperatures to be effective. The ammonia-salt based solvent system quickens the conversion of cellulose into sugars using enzymes. It can greatly reduce the cost of biofuels production because enzymes can account for about 15% to 20% of the cost of making biofuels such as ethanol from biomass. Next steps will be to optimize the pretreatment process for biomass like corn stover, municipal solid wastes and bioenergy crops like switchgrass and poplar that could be turned into fuels, while also developing more robust enzymes to further reduce costs, according to Chundawat. Resources Shishir P. S. Chundawat, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Shyamal Roy, Zhi Yang, Shashwat Gupta, Ramendra Pal, Chao Zhao, Shih-Hsien Liu, Loukas Petridis, Hugh O’Neill and Sai Venkatesh Pingali (2020) “Ammonia-salt solvent promotes cellulosic biomass deconstruction under ambient pretreatment conditions to enable rapid soluble sugar production at ultra-low enzyme loadings” Green Chem., 22, 204-218 doi: 10.1039/C9GC03524A
Kia Motors to offer 11 EVs by 2025, targeting a 6.6% global EV market share; launching dedicated EV model in 2021
Kia Motors Corporation announced details of ‘Plan S’, its mid- to long-term strategy aimed at progressively establishing a leadership position in the future automotive industry, encompassing electrification and mobility services, as well as connectivity and autonomy. The Plan S strategy outlines Kia’s shift from a business system focused on internal combustion engine vehicles toward one centered on electric vehicles and customized mobility solutions. The company’s ongoing brand innovation and profitability enhancement will support the two-track Plan S strategy targeting the shift toward electric and autonomous vehicles as well as mobility services. Alongside Kia’s 2025 financial and investment strategy, details of Plan S were announced to shareholders, analysts and credit-rating agencies at the company’s CEO Investor Day in Seoul. By the end of 2025, Kia plans to offer a full line-up of 11 battery-electric vehicles. With these models Kia is looking to achieve a 6.6% share of the global EV market (excluding China), while also attaining a 25% share of its sales from its eco-friendly cars. With the global EV market expected to gain strength by 2026, Kia is aiming for 500,000 annual EV sales and global sales of 1 million eco-friendly vehicles (excluding China). Alongside these objectives, Kia will offer EV-based mobility services as part of its new business model, helping solve global urban problems such as environmental pollution. In the Purpose Built Vehicle (PBV) market, anticipated to grow on the back of expanding car-sharing and e-commerce businesses, the company will secure leading-edge competitiveness. Plan S will see Kia Motors invest a total of 29 trillion won (US $25 billion) by the end of 2025 to establish leadership in vehicle electrification and diversify its business. By the end of this period, Kia Motors is targeting a 6% operating profit margin and 10.6% return on equity (ROE) ratio to secure the necessary capital and maximize shareholder value. As the two strategic objectives of Plan S, Kia will concentrate on (1) leading the popularization of electric vehicles, and (2) expanding mobility services for electric and autonomous vehicles, as well as entering the PBV business. The company will pursue innovations across the board, encompassing brand identity, corporate identity, design identity and user experience, among other fields. Kia aims to enable customers to directly feel, experience, and understand the company’s evolution as an enterprise championing EVs and mobility solutions Kia’s new brand system, which is slated to be revealed in the second half of this year, is currently being formulated under clear objectives. This includes becoming a pioneer in the age of EVs, a brand beloved by the millennial generation (those with a good grasp of information technology born between the early 1980s and early 2000s, a period witnessing the transition from the analog to the digital era) and Z generation (those born after the mid-1990s and grown up largely in a digital environment with a natural inclination for using digital tools, hence their nickname, ‘digital natives’), and a symbol of challenge and innovation.
Enevate announces new 4th-generation Si-dominant battery technology; optimized for high volume production
Enevate, a developer of advanced silicon-dominant Li-ion battery technology capable of extreme fast charging for electric vehicles (EVs), announced its new fourth-generation technology optimized for high volume commercialization and manufacturing at gigafactory scale. The new XFC-Energy technology achieves 5-minute charging to 75% capacity with 800 Wh/L cell energy density. Today’s conventional large-format Li-ion EV cells are at 500-600 Wh/L and typically take more than 1 hour to charge. Highlights of the fourth-generation XFC-Energy technology include: Cell technology scalable for large-format pouch, prismatic and cylindrical EV cells suitable for various battery module and pack architectures. Achieves 800 Wh/L and 340 Wh/kg in large-format EV cells. Pure silicon-dominant anode technology tunable with 10-60µm thickness and 1000-2000mAh/g that can be paired with NCA, NCM811, NCMA, low-cobalt, or other advanced cathode technologies. Continuous roll-to-roll anode manufacturing processes designed and capable of achieving more than 80 meters per minute electrode production, more than 10 GWh per electrode production line, with pure silicon anode rolls greater than 1 meter wide and longer than 5 kilometers in length sufficient for high volume gigafactory production, among other features. Lower anode material cost (dollar per kWh) than conventional and synthetic graphite. Transformative performance improvement, with five-minute charge to 75% of battery capacity, and, when paired with a high-nickel cathode, capable of over 1000 cycles using an EV drive cycle test and operation at -20˚C and below temperatures. Mass EV adoption by consumers and fleet owners will depend to a large degree on advanced battery technology that will remove current barriers to entry such as long charging times and limited range. Enevate is a key enabler for electric vehicles that are affordable, easy and quick to charge, and clean.—Christian Noske, Chairman of Alliance Ventures (Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi), an Enevate investor Enevate’s fourth-generation is the latest result of more than 74 million hours of battery cell testing by Enevate’s scientists, 1 million meters of electrodes produced in the company’s R&D pilot line, and 2 billion test datapoints. I salute the Enevate team for reaching this next important step in fulfilling the company’s mission to develop and commercialize innovative battery technologies to accelerate the adoption of electrified mobility.—Dr. John Goodenough, a recipient of the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry for groundbreaking work in the development of Li-ion batteries and who has served on Enevate’s Advisory Board since 2010 Enevate’s fourth-generation XFC-Energy technology provides a path to produce extreme fast-charge EV batteries at low cost and high-volume production. Enevate is currently working with multiple automotive OEMs and EV battery manufacturers to commercialize its technology for 2024-2025 model year EVs, utilizing existing manufacturing infrastructure with minimal investment required—a core goal of its development. Enevate Founder and Chief Technology Officer Dr. Benjamin Park noted that Enevate’s XFC-Energy technology has been designed for large-format pouch, prismatic and cylindrical EV cells, utilizing its pure silicon anode paired with nickel-rich NCA, NCM and NCMA advanced cathodes. Dr. Park is discussing Enevate’s technology today at the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference in Weisbaden, Germany, in a presentation titled “Charging Ahead: Commercializing Fast-Charge Si-Dominant Li-ion Cells for EVs.” Enevate has raised more than $110 million from investors including Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi (Alliance Ventures), LG Chem, Samsung, Mission Ventures, Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Tsing Capital, Infinite Potential Technologies, Presidio Ventures – a Sumitomo Corporation company, Lenovo, CEC Capital and Bangchak.
Rice engineers find overabundance of intentional defects can cause battery cathodes to fail
New simulations by Rice materials scientist Ming Tang and graduate student Kaiqi Yang, detailed in the Journal of Materials Chemistry A, show that too much stress concentration in widely-used lithium iron phosphate cathodes can open cracks and quickly degrade batteries. The work extends recent Rice research that demonstrated how putting defects in particles that make up the cathode could improve battery performance by up to two orders of magnitude by helping lithium move more efficiently. The lab’s subsequent modeling study has revealed a caveat. Under the pressure of rapid charging and discharging, defect-laden cathodes risk fracture. At left, a 3D model by Rice University materials scientists shows a phase boundary as a delithiating lithium iron phosphate cathode undergoes rapid discharge. At right, a cross-section shows the “fingerlike” boundary between iron phosphate (blue) and lithium (red). Rice engineers found that too many intentional defects intended to make batteries better can in fact degrade their performance and endurance. (Credit: Mesoscale Materials Science Group/Rice University) The root of the problem appears to be that stress destabilizes the initially flat boundary and causes it to become wavy, Tang said. The change in the boundary shape further increases the stress level and triggers crack formation. The study by Tang’s group shows that such instability can be increased by a common type of defect in battery compounds called antisites, where iron atoms occupy spots in the crystal where lithium atoms should be. Antisites can be a good thing, as we showed in the last paper, because they accelerate the lithium intercalation kinetics. But here we show a countereffect: Too many antisites in the particles encourage the moving interface to become unstable and therefore generate more stress.—Ming Tang Tang believes there’s a sweet spot for the number of antisites in a cathode: enough to enhance performance but too few to promote instability. You want to have a suitable level of defects, and it will require some trial and error to figure out how to reach the right amount through annealing the particles. We think our new predictions might be useful to experimentalists.—Ming Tang The US Department of Energy (DOE) supported the research. Simulations were performed on supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas and DOE’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Resources Kaiqi Yang and Ming Tang (2020) “Three-dimensional phase evolution and stress-induced non-uniform Li intercalation behavior in lithium iron phosphate” J. Mater. Chem. A doi: 10.1039/C9TA11697D
USDOT to release BAA for V2X communications devices for safety band spectrum testing
The US Department of Transportation (USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) plans to issue a broad agency announcement (BAA) to procure prototype or commercially available, off-the-shelf, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications devices to support USDOT 5.9 GHz Safety Band spectrum testing. The Safety Band is radio spectrum reserved specifically for transportation safety. In 1999, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 75 MHz of radio spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band to be used for vehicle and infrastructure communications. Since then, infrastructure developers and vehicle innovators have developed many smart technologies that rely on the Safety Band, and those innovations all have one thing in common: they depend on clear, uncluttered wireless signals that can help vehicles avoid accidents in the smallest fraction of a second. Technologies developed to operate in the Safety Band carry messages that allow vehicles to “see” around blind curves and traffic in ways that conventional line-of-sight technologies (including lidar and radar) cannot. They enable traffic and emergency operations to flow safely and know what’s ahead, unaffected by fog, rain, snow and blinding sunbeams. The devices will be used to evaluate the safety, performance, and capabilities of available equipment, devices, and underlying technologies through both small- and large-scale testing, including scalability and congestion, interoperability, and complex transportation scenarios. The FHWA anticipates awarding multiple, firm-fixed priced contracts as a result of the BAA. The period of performance for each contract shall not exceed 18 months from the effective date of the contract award.
AKASOL to supply battery systems for Alstom’s hydrogen trains
AKASOL will supply battery systems for more than 40 Coradia iLint hydrogen trains (earlier post), which have been ordered from Alstom by the Lower Saxony Transit Authority and the Rhine/Main Regional Transport Association. With this major order in the low double-digit million euro range, AKASOL is expanding its operations in the area of fuel cell powertrains, as well as extending its customer base. The first battery systems (including heating and cooling equipment, cables and underfloor box) are scheduled for delivery in the second half of 2020, and all 40 systems are expected to be delivered by 2021. Based in Darmstadt, AKASOL has been engaged in the development of train batteries for more than ten years. Each Coradia iLint train is equipped with two high-performance battery systems with a total capacity of 220 kWh. The electrical energy generated by braking is stored in AKASOL’s systems and released to the electric engines when the train accelerates. The combination of hydrogen fuel cells and our intelligent high-performance battery enables continuous storage of the electrical energy generated by the fuel cells as well as dynamic absorption of the high electrical power which is recuperated when braking. The systems not only provide the power needed for propulsion but also supply power for on-board systems like lighting and air conditioning.—Sven Schulz, the CEO of AKASOL AG The battery system can be charged in a very short time due to its high 3C charging power and features high cycle life and effective thermal management. The Coradia iLint has been conducting in successful passenger service between Cuxhaven and Buxtehude since September 2018. Since then, it has already traveled more than 150,000 kilometers. AKASOL and Alstom are convinced that hydrogen fuel cell-based propulsion will prove to be another key driver, alongside pure electric vehicles, on the way towards an emission-free transportation system. Hydrogen and fuel cells in combination with extremely powerful batteries offer a functional and cleaner alternative to diesel propulsion for non-electrified railways. Our decision to replace the entire diesel fleet in Bremervörde with Alstom’s hydrogen trains makes us a trailblazer in the transportation revolution.—Olaf Lies (SPD), Lower Saxony’s Minister for the Environment, Energy, Construction and Climate Protection Aside from use in combination with fuel cells, AKASOL’s battery system is also suitable for use in battery-powered electric trains on non-electrified tracks in which the battery is partially recharged with high electrical power while the train is stopped at a station. AKASOL is currently developing this technology together with major railway manufacturers in Germany, Europe, the US and Asia.
IBM, Daimler researchers use quantum computer to simulate Li-sulfur battery chemistry
Researchers at IBM and Daimler AG have used a quantum computer to model the dipole moment of three lithium-containing molecules, with an eye on moving closer to next-generation lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In a research paper published on arXiv.org, the researchers report simulating the ground state energies and the dipole moments of the molecules that could form in lithium-sulfur batteries during operation: lithium hydride (LiH), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), lithium hydrogen sulfide (LiSH), and the desired product, lithium sulfide (Li2S). In addition, and for the first time on quantum hardware, they demonstrated that they can calculate the dipole moment for LiH using 4 qubits on IBM Q Valencia, a premium-access 5-qubit quantum computer. In a post on the IBM Research Blog, co-author Jeannette Garcia at IBM Almaden Research Center notes that quantum computers are not yet better than classical computers. Any outside disturbance knocks the fragile qubits out of quantum states crucial for the calculation too early for them to run meaningful computations. However, she adds, they are already showing great promise in chemistry, towards precisely simulating complex molecules—a process that is time-consuming and costly on classic computers. The largest chemical problems researchers have been so far able to simulate classically, meaning on a standard computer, by exact diagonalization (or FCI, full configuration interaction) comprise around 22 electrons and 22 orbitals, the size of an active space in the pentacene molecule. For reference, a single FCI iteration for pentacene takes ~1.17 hours on ~4096 processors and a full calculation would be expected to take around nine days. For any larger chemical problem, exact calculations become prohibitively slow and memory-consuming, so that approximation schemes need to be introduced in classical simulations, which are not guaranteed to be accurate and affordable for all chemical problems. It’s important to note that reasonably accurate approximations to classical FCI approaches also continue to evolve and is an active area of research, so we can expect that accurate approximations to classical FCI calculations will also continue to improve over time. That’s where quantum computers come in. Qubits themselves operate according to the laws of quantum mechanics, just like the molecules researchers are trying to simulate. The hope is that in time quantum computers can greatly speed up the simulation process by precisely predicting the properties of a new molecule that can explain its behavior, such as reactivity. Programming qubits works by using unique properties of superposition and entanglement, allowing the potential for researchers to evaluate a expectation parameters—in a much more efficient way than a standard computer ever could.—Jeannette Garcia The researchers at Daimler hope that quantum computers will help them design next-generation lithium-sulfur batteries, because quantum computers have the potential to compute and simulate precisely the fundamental behavior. The electron-cloud density distribution of molecules, and particularly their dipole moment, are critical for understanding a variety of phenomena occurring in batteries. In general, molecules with high polarity can easily attract or repel valence electrons from other compounds and generate reactions through electron transfer. The dipole moment of a molecule also determines its response to an external electric field. Accurate computation of energetics and dipole moments of molecules is thus a problem with deep conceptual importance, and significant applicability to the chemistry of LiS batteries. Achieving this goal requires solving the Schrödinger equation for the molecules of interest, a problem that is known to be exponentially expensive for classical computers, unless approximation schemes are introduced. Quantum computing is a mode of attack of mathematical problems, that has an enormous potential to provide advantage over conventional computing in a number of areas, including quantum chemistry. A number of heuristics to provide approximate but highly accurate solutions to the Schrödinger equation have been proposed, in particular the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE). IBM researchers have demonstrated the use and accuracy of VQE in investigations of a variety of molecules. Motivated by these successes, and by the importance of computing energies and electrostatic properties, in this work we assess the performance of quantum algorithms in determining ground state energies and dipole moments along bond stretching for LiH, H2S, LiSH and Li2S.—Rice et al. To make sure the calculations on the quantum hardware were accurate, the researchers also performed them on a classical computer using the IBM quantum simulator. Then, they ran these calculations on IBM Q Valencia, and compared the results. Resources Julia E. Rice, Tanvi P. Gujarati, Tyler Y. Takeshita, Joe Latone, Mario Motta, Andreas Hintennach, Jeannette M. Garcia (2020) “Quantum Chemistry Simulations of Dominant Products in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries” arXiv:2001.01120 [physics.chem-ph]
New Jersey advancing plug-ins: 330K units by end of 2025, 2M by 2035, 85% of new vehicles by 2040
Both houses of the New Jersey Legislature (Senate and Assembly) have passed a bill (S2252/A4819) that establishes goals and incentives for increased use of plug-in electric vehicles in NJ. The Governor is expected to sign it. Specifically, the bill sets a goal of at least 330,000 of the total number of registered light duty vehicles in the State being plug-in electric vehicles by 31 December 2025. This increases to 2 million by the end of 2035. By the end of 2040, at least 85% of all new light duty vehicles sold or leased in the State are to be plug-in electric vehicles. According to EVAdoption, the stock of plug-ins (BEV and PHEV) in New Jersey as of 31 Dec 2018 was 25,945 units. New Jersey defines “plug-in electric vehicle” as a vehicle that has a battery or equivalent energy storage device that can be charged from an electricity supply external to the vehicle with an electric plug. The definition includes plug-in hybrids. On the infrastructure side, the bill specifies that by the end of 2025: At least 400 DC Fast Chargers shall be available for public use at no fewer than 200 charging locations in the State. At least 75 of the 200 or more charging locations shall be at travel corridor locations, equipped with at least two DC Fast Chargers per location, each capable of providing at least 150 kilowatts of charging power, and no more than 25 miles between the charging locations. At least 100 of the 200 or more charging locations shall be community locations, equipped with at least two DC Fast Chargers per location, each capable of providing 50 kilowatts of charging power or more, and 150 24 kilowatts or more where feasible. At least 1,000 Level Two chargers shall be available for public use across the State, and after initial installation, those EVSE may be upgraded to higher power or DC Fast Chargers as appropriate by the owner or operator of the EVSE. At least 15% of all multi- family residential properties in the State shall be equipped with EVSE for the routine charging of plug-in electric vehicles by residents through a combination of Level One EVSE, Level Two EVSE, or charger-ready parking spaces, which collectively shall serve a percentage of resident parking spaces equal to the percentage of light duty vehicles registered in the State that are plug-in electric vehicles at the end of the preceding calendar year, or the percentage of vehicles owned by residents that are plug-in electric vehicles, whichever is higher. By 31 December 2030, 30% of all multi-family properties shall be equipped for electric vehicle charging as described above. 20% of all franchised overnight lodging establishments shall be equipped with EVSE for routine electric vehicle charging by guests of the establishment by providing Level Two EVSE. This climbs to 50% by the end of 2030. The bill also mandates that by the end of 2025, at least 25% of State-owned non-emergency light duty vehicles shall be plug-in electric vehicles. This climbs to 100% by 31 December 2035 and thereafter. The bill also specifies the implementation of a light-duty plug-in electric vehicle incentive program for 10 years, up to a maximum $5,000 per eligible vehicle. The Board of Public Utilities (BPU) would implement this incentive program and provide at least $30 million in disbursements under the program each year. Any incentive offered under this program would take the form of a one-time payment to the purchaser or lessee of an eligible vehicle. An “eligible vehicle” is any new light duty plug-in electric vehicle with an MSRP of below $55,000 purchased or leased after the effective date of the bill and registered in New Jersey. In addition to the light duty plug-in electric vehicle incentive program established in the bill, the BPU would be authorized to establish and implement an incentive program for the purchase and installation of in-home electric vehicle service equipment. The New Jersey Legislature just passed the most significant legislation in more than 15 years to reduce air pollutants and global warming pollution from our cars and trucks since the passage of the Clean Cars bill in 2004. This bill will make New Jersey a leading state in electrifying our transportation sector and move towards a future of zero tailpipe emissions from our vehicles.—Doug O’Malley, President of ChargEVC and Director of Environment New Jersey This bill represents a long-overdue commitment on the part of State government to put money where its mandates are. New Jersey’s Clean Car, law enacted 15 years ago, mandates an ever-increasing number of electric vehicle sales in the State. The cash-on-the-hood incentives and infrastructure investment provided by this legislation demonstrate a real commitment to accelerate the electric vehicle market in New Jersey.—Jim Appleton, Officer of ChargEVC and President of the New Jersey Coalition of Automotive Retailers
Aeristech introduces new 20 kW motor for internal combustion and fuel cell compressor applications
Aeristech, the UK-based developer of power-dense and efficient high-speed electric motors for applications including super- and turbo-chargers and fuel-cell compressors, has introduced a new 20 kW motor. The new compressor provides greater torque density than any same-rated rival technology, reduced size for enhanced modularity and a significant increase in continuous power rating. The applications for Aeristech’s new 20kW motor include traditional internal combustion and fuel cell passenger and commercial vehicles with stacks of up to and more than 100kW, industrial, aerospace and marine. Aeristech’s key invention so far is a new form of control architecture for permanent magnet variable-speed electric motors. The patented system allows motors to accelerate to 160,000 rpm in less than a second. The technology also generates less heat than competitive products, allowing the delivery of products with higher efficiency, greater power density and continuous running at high power. Aeristech has developed a range of products based on the core IP. The 20kW motor is the latest additional to Aeristech’s range of permanent magnet variable speed electric units. The 20kW motor provides maximum mass flow of 150gs-1 and a peak pressure ratio of 3.2 at 130gs-1. As an early adopter of Aeristech technology, MAHLE was invited to take part in the launch of the new compressor. MAHLE has used Aeristech’s existing technology within the powertrain of its advanced downsizing demonstrator vehicle. The Volkswagen Golf features a 48V architecture and a 1.2-liter, 3-cylinder gasoline engine producing 193kW. This is achieved through the use of an Aeristech eSupercharger, which provides increased airflow alongside a traditional, larger turbocharger. 315Nm torque is produced from only 1500rpm, matching the performance of the original 2-liter turbocharged gasoline engine while offering a 25% reduction in emissions. We are delighted to assist Aeristech with the opening of its new facility and unveiling of its latest 20kW electric motor; as long-standing technology partners we have first-hand experience of the benefits its eSupercharger technology can bring and we look forward to working on exciting future projects together. Aeristech’s eSupercharger is a key enabler for the extraordinary results achieved by our advanced downsizing demonstrator vehicle and we are sure that the new 20kW motor will help future projects to once again achieve or surpass expectations.—Simon Reader, MAHLE director of engineering services